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Principles Of Planetary Climate

Author: Raymond T. Pierrehumbert
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139495062
Size: 18.66 MB
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This book introduces the reader to all the basic physical building blocks of climate needed to understand the present and past climate of Earth, the climates of Solar System planets, and the climates of extrasolar planets. These building blocks include thermodynamics, infrared radiative transfer, scattering, surface heat transfer and various processes governing the evolution of atmospheric composition. Nearly four hundred problems are supplied to help consolidate the reader's understanding, and to lead the reader towards original research on planetary climate. This textbook is invaluable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students in atmospheric science, Earth and planetary science, astrobiology, and physics. It also provides a superb reference text for researchers in these subjects, and is very suitable for academic researchers trained in physics or chemistry who wish to rapidly gain enough background to participate in the excitement of the new research opportunities opening in planetary climate.

Climate Intervention

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309314852
Size: 63.74 MB
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The growing problem of changing environmental conditions caused by climate destabilization is well recognized as one of the defining issues of our time. The root problem is greenhouse gas emissions, and the fundamental solution is curbing those emissions. Climate geoengineering has often been considered to be a "last-ditch" response to climate change, to be used only if climate change damage should produce extreme hardship. Although the likelihood of eventually needing to resort to these efforts grows with every year of inaction on emissions control, there is a lack of information on these ways of potentially intervening in the climate system. As one of a two-book report, this volume of Climate Intervention discusses albedo modification - changing the fraction of incoming solar radiation that reaches the surface. This approach would deliberately modify the energy budget of Earth to produce a cooling designed to compensate for some of the effects of warming associated with greenhouse gas increases. The prospect of large-scale albedo modification raises political and governance issues at national and global levels, as well as ethical concerns. Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth discusses some of the social, political, and legal issues surrounding these proposed techniques. It is far easier to modify Earth's albedo than to determine whether it should be done or what the consequences might be of such an action. One serious concern is that such an action could be unilaterally undertaken by a small nation or smaller entity for its own benefit without international sanction and regardless of international consequences. Transparency in discussing this subject is critical. In the spirit of that transparency, Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth was based on peer-reviewed literature and the judgments of the authoring committee; no new research was done as part of this study and all data and information used are from entirely open sources. By helping to bring light to this topic area, this book will help leaders to be far more knowledgeable about the consequences of albedo modification approaches before they face a decision whether or not to use them.

The Oxford Handbook Of The Macroeconomics Of Global Warming

Author: Lucas Bernard
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190204192
Size: 35.32 MB
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The first World Climate Conference, which was sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization in Genève in 1979, triggered an international dialogue on global warming. From the 1997 United Nations-sponsored conference-during which the Kyoto Protocol was signed-through meetings in Copenhagen, Cancún, Durban, and most recently Doha (2012) and Warsaw (2013), worldwide attention to the issue of global warming and its impact on the world's economy has rapidly increased in intensity. The consensus of these debates and discussions, however, is less than clear. Optimistically, many geoscience researchers and members of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have supported CO2 emission reduction pledges while maintaining that a 2°C limit in increased temperature by the year 2100 is achievable through international coordination. Other observers postulate that established CO2 reduction commitments such as those agreed to at the Copenhagen United Nations Climate Change Conference (2009) are insufficient and cannot hold the global warming increase below 2°C. As experts theorize on precisely what impact global warming will have, developing nations have become particularly alarmed. The developed world will use energy to mitigate global warming effects, but developing countries are more exposed by geography and poverty to the most dangerous consequences of a global temperature rise and lack the economic means to adapt. The complex dynamics that result from this confluence of science and geopolitics gives rise to even more complicated issues for economists, financial planners, business leaders, and policy-makers. The Oxford Handbook of the Macroeconomics of Global Warming analyzes the economic impact of issues related to and resulting from global warming, specifically the implications of possible preventative measures, various policy changes, and adaptation efforts as well as the different consequences climate change will have on both developing and developed nations. This multi-disciplinary approach, which touches on issues of growth, employment, and development, elucidates for readers state-of-the-art research on the complex and far-reaching problem of global warming.

Modeling Atmospheric And Oceanic Flows

Author: Thomas von Larcher
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118855922
Size: 43.79 MB
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Modeling Atmospheric and Oceanic Flows: Insights from LaboratoryExperiments and Numerical Simulations provides a broad overview ofrecent progress in using laboratory experiments and numericalsimulations to model atmospheric and oceanic fluid motions. Thisvolume not only surveys novel research topics in laboratoryexperimentation, but also highlights recent developments in thecorresponding computational simulations. As computing power growsexponentially and better numerical codes are developed, theinterplay between numerical simulations and laboratory experimentsis gaining paramount importance within the scientific community.The lessons learnt from the laboratory–model comparisons inthis volume will act as a source of inspiration for the nextgeneration of experiments and simulations. Volume highlightsinclude: Topics pertaining to atmospheric science, climatephysics, physical oceanography, marine geology and geophysics Overview of the most advanced experimental andcomputational research in geophysics Recent developments in numerical simulations ofatmospheric and oceanic fluid motion Unique comparative analysis of the experimentaland numerical approaches to modeling fluid flow Modeling Atmospheric and Oceanic Flows will be a valuableresource for graduate students, researchers, and professionals inthe fields of geophysics, atmospheric sciences, oceanography,climate science, hydrology, and experimental geosciences.

Global Climate Change

Author: James C. White
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401129142
Size: 16.56 MB
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Bacteria in a test tube and humans on our planet follow the same population curve as time elapses. We on this earth, largely through control of disease, are rapidly ap proaching maximum population, and through energy demands are using up our resour ces and accumulating wastes. We have come to realize the danger of a maturing system but have made essential ly no impact in mitigating or preventing the problems we face. While we have been able to change the world we live in, most of our effects have been to degrade the planet. We have nibbled away at the quality of the atmosphere for centuries and the ac cumulated damage has resulted in changing the world's climate at an ever-increasing rate. We now face the possibility of higher average temperatures over most of our planet, changing patterns of rainfall, rising sea levels, aggravated storm systems and a myriad of social effects.

Repairing Domestic Climate Displacement

Author: Scott Leckie
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317417119
Size: 79.90 MB
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Climate change, sometimes thought of as a problem for the future, is already impacting people’s lives around the world: families are losing their homes, lands and livelihoods as a result of sea level rise, increased frequency and intensity of storms, drought and other phenomena. Following several years of preparatory work across the globe, legal scholars, judges, UN officials and climate change experts from 11 countries came together to finalise a new normative framework aiming to strengthen the right of climate-displaced persons, households and communities. This resulted in the approval of the Peninsula Principles on Climate Displacement within States in August 2013. This book provides detailed explanations and interpretations of the Peninsula Principles and includes in-depth discussion of the legal, policy and programmatic efforts needed to uphold the standards and norms embedded in the Principles. The book provides policy-makers with the conceptual understanding necessary to ensure that national-level policies are in place to respond to the climate displacement challenge, as well as a firm sense of the programme-level approaches that can be taken to anticipate, reduce and manage climate displacement. It also provides students and policy advocates with the necessary information to debate and critique responses to climate displacement at different levels. Drawing together key thinkers in the field, this volume will be of great relevance to scholars, lawyers, legal advisors and policy-makers with an interest in climate change, environmental policy, disaster management and human rights law and policy.

Environmental Human Rights And Climate Change

Author: Bridget Lewis
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 981131960X
Size: 22.28 MB
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This book examines the current status of environmental human rights at the international, regional, and national levels and provides a critical analysis of possible future developments in this area, particularly in the context of a changing climate. It examines various conceptualisations of environmental human rights, including procedural rights relating to the environment, constitutional environmental rights, the environmental dimensions of existing human rights such as the rights to water, health, food, housing and life, and the notion of a stand-alone human right to a healthy environment. The book addresses the topic from a variety of perspectives, drawing on underlying theories of human rights as well as a range of legal, political, and pragmatic considerations. It examines the scope of current human rights, particularly those enshrined in international and regional human rights law, to explore their application and enforceability in relation to environmental problems, identifying potential barriers to more effective implementation. It also analyses the rationale for constitutional recognition of environmental rights and considers the impact that this area of law has had, both in terms of achieving stronger environmental protection and environmental justice, as well as in influencing the development of human rights law more generally. The book identifies climate change as the key environmental challenge facing the global community, as well as a major cause of negative human rights impacts. It examines the contribution that environmental human rights might make to rights-based approaches to climate change.

Climate Change And Sustainable Development

Author: Thomas Potthast
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9086867537
Size: 72.36 MB
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Climate change is a major framing condition for sustainable development of agriculture and food. Global food production is a major contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions and at the same time it is among the sectors worst affected by climate change. This book brings together a multidisciplinary group of authors exploring the ethical dimensions of climate change and food. Conceptual clarifications provide a necessary basis for putting sustainable development into practice. Adaptation and mitigation demand altering both agricultural and consumption practices. Intensive vs. extensive production is reassessed with regard to animal welfare, efficiency and environmental implications. Property rights pay an ever-increasing role, as do shifting land-use practices, agro-energy, biotechnology, food policy to green consumerism. And, last but not least, tools are suggested for teaching agricultural and food ethics. Notwithstanding the plurality of ethical analyses and their outcome, it becomes apparent that governance of agri-food is faced by new needs and new approaches of bringing in the value dimension much more explicitly. This book is intended to serve as a stimulating collection that will contribute to debate and reflection on the sustainable future of agriculture and food production in the face of global change.

Atmosphere Clouds And Climate

Author: David Allan Randall
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 59.61 MB
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The atmosphere is critical to climate change. It can amplify shifts in the climate system, and also mitigate them. This primer offers a short, reader-friendly introduction to these atmospheric processes and how they work, written by a leading expert on the subject. Giving readers an overview of key atmospheric processes, David Randall looks at how our climate system receives energy from the sun and sheds it by emitting infrared radiation back into space. The atmosphere regulates these radiative energy flows and transports energy through weather systems such as thunderstorms, monsoons, hurricanes, and winter storms. Randall explains how these processes work, and also how precipitation, cloud formation, and other phase changes of water strongly influence weather and climate. He discusses how atmospheric feedbacks affect climate change, how the large-scale atmospheric circulation works, how predicting the weather and the climate are fundamentally different challenges, and much more. This is the ideal introduction for students and nonspecialists. No prior experience in atmospheric science is needed, only basic college physics. Authoritative and concise, Atmosphere, Clouds, and Climate features a glossary of terms, suggestions for further reading, and easy-to-follow explanations of a few key equations. This accessible primer is the essential introduction to atmospheric processes and the vital role they play in our climate system.

Spectroscopy And Radiative Transfer Of Planetary Atmospheres

Author: Kelly Chance
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019966210X
Size: 66.59 MB
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Spectroscopy and radiative transfer are rapidly growing fields within atmospheric and planetary science with implications on various fields. Remote sensing and modeling atmospheric composition require detailed knowledge of how radiation and matter interact in planetary atmospheres. This book provides this fundamental knowledge to a depth that will leave a student with the background to become capable of performing quantitative research on atmospheres. The book is intended for graduate students or for advanced undergraduates. It spans across principles through applications, with sufficient background for students without prior experience in either spectroscopy or radiative transfer. Courses based on this book are intended to be accompanied by the development of increasing sophisticated atmospheric and spectroscopic modeling capability (ideally, the student develops a computer model for simulation of atmospheric spectra from microwave through ultraviolet).