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Public Policy Making

Author: Larry N. Gerston
Publisher: M.E. Sharpe
ISBN: 0765627434
Size: 52.31 MB
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This brief text identifies the issues, resources, actors, and institutions involved in public policy making and traces the dynamics of the policymaking process, including the triggering of issue awareness, the emergence of an issue on the public agenda, the formation of a policy commitment, and the implementation process that translates policy into practice. Throughout the text, which has been revised and updated, Gerston brings his analysis to life with abundant examples from the most recent and emblematic cases of public policy making. At the same time, with well-chosen references, he places policy analysis in the context of political science and deftly orients readers to the classics of public policy studies. Each chapter ends with discussion questions and suggestions for further reading.

Public Policymaking In A Democratic Society

Author: Larry N. Gerston
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317461665
Size: 32.71 MB
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While people profess a disdain for politics, in a democracy politics is the primary vehicle for citizens to influence the decisions and decision makers that shape public policy at every level. This widely acclaimed work provides an overview of public policymaking in all its aspects along with basic information, tools, and examples that will equip citizens to participate more effectively in the policymaking process. It is intended for use in internships and service-learning programs, but will serve equally as a resource for any organized effort to involve citizens in community service and the exercise of civic responsibility. This updated edition includes an all-new case study on the issue of immigration, and all other case studies have been revised.

Health Promotion

Author: Rachael Dixey
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 1845939727
Size: 30.22 MB
Format: PDF
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Health promotion is a key mechanism in tackling the foremost health challenges faced by developing and developed nations. Covering key concepts, theory and practical aspects of health promotion, this textbook addresses the topic on a global scale. Suitable for students studying health promotion, public health nursing and related subjects, this book focuses on the key themes central to contemporary health promotion practice, such as social determinants, equality and equity, policy and health, working in partnerships, sustainability, evaluation and evidence-based practice. It outlines the critical application of health promotion to practice throughout the chapters, and summarizes the future directions of professional health promotion practice. Placing a strong emphasis on a global context, this book provides a practical guide to achieving worldwide health as well an accessible and engaging academic resource, also of interest to health practitioners and NGOs.

Public Policy Formulation Implementation Analyses

Author: Dr. Sarfraz Khawaja
Publisher: Mr. Books, Super Market, Islamabad, Pakistan
ISBN: 9698121080
Size: 52.80 MB
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Public Policy does not have teeth but it bites’ Is that what happens? Pakistan is in a perpetual state of slide and is facing existential crises where the Max Weber’s principles of political economy would seem to be helpless. During the last ten years since 2000, Country is groaning under huge pressure of socio-economic decline. By the end of June 2013, Pakistan is burdened with US$60.87 billion foreign debt and Rupees 8,800 billion of internal debt. Foreign investment has declined to US$ 853 million from US$3.7 billion in 2008. The foreign exchange reserves with the Central Bank amounts to US$ 6.5 billion which is barely enough for 60 days of imports. During the next 12 months, US$ 5 billion had to be given back to IMF as loan repayment. The GDP ratio is 3.7% whereas inflation is 9%. The country is also facing trade deficit of US$ 12.54 billion. The stuck up loans of local banks have amounted to the tune of one trillion rupees. Is this enough of biting? This is only part of economic mismanagement notwithstanding the bad governess, thousands of lives lost in terrorist attacks, deteriorating general crime situation and above all the massive corruption in the public sector organizations, miss-management in government offices and institutions. The extreme shortage of gas, petrol and electricity particularly for industry and ordinary household has demonstrated the negligence and inefficiency of the government. The entire country suffers from electricity load shedding of 16 hours or more in 24 hours depending on geographical proximity of the resident. The province of Punjab is the worst hit and the province of Sindh is the least sufferer. This all happened in the presence and declaration of different public policies of several ministries, sectors and departments including monetary and fiscal policies announced from time to time with regular intervals. What happens if there is no public policy? The solace is far away because the non policy situation is no better option than the declared bad Policy. The awful governance, poverty, unemployment, target killings in Karachi, unrest in Baluchistan and above all USA Drone attacks and so on are the results of no public policies. Pakistan has been a very serious victim of terrorist activities since 2000 but unfortunately no policy stipulation has been enacted as a Policy against Terrorism. Who is responsible for the lack of policy formulation on critical areas such as anti terrorism, security (especially human security plus external security) power shortage, food security and several others? Is it legislature (mostly politicians), executive (bureaucracy) Judiciary (apex Courts) or all powerful institution (armed forces)? All of them are equally responsible because each of privileged and powerful key stake holders preferred to stay in their comfort zones. Was it done intentionally or because of poor understanding about the policies of the country and its implication? It resonates that Pakistan is not short of public policies. That may be the situation if the policy is seen as hybrid declaration of reactive statements by the Chief Executive or Head of the State. Public policy is a sacred trust, a commitment of the stake holders and an instrument of public support for the well being of its people and advancement of the country. If these two things do not combine then the policy existence is farce and misleading. There has been rampant corruption in Pakistan. It is assumed that in most of the cases it is greed factor and in rare situation need factor can be seen. In reality corruption is system based in Pakistan. Hence it needs systemic remedy. But no consistent anti- corruption policy has been developed and even if there are some announcements in bits and pieces against corruption the implementation is haphazard. In most of the developing countries like Pakistan public policy has been used as a vehicle of growth and hardly entailed change. This is also correct in most of the policies related to different ministries and departments. This was because of the legacy of colonial rule in which social institutions and state policy were used as an instrument of repression to perpetuate power. Every situation was perceived as a law and order problem which could disrupt the revenue collection by the state apparatus. The excitement of independence and sovereignty was so over whelming that structure and design of social institutions and public policy were not modified. The changed status of the society, not only in geographical sense, but more so in the context of social, political and economic development, the needed institutions to meet the demands of a new country were neither created nor developed. The needs and expectations of the new polity were not compatible with the existing state institutions. The resulting chaos and mismanagement is the manifestation of conflict between the development process which presupposes to work for societal needs and the state policy which is dominated to protect the interest of elite groups. The state institutions whether dealing with the governance of the masses or the dispensation of justice, the operations of finances or the functions of civic amenities worked primarily through force, coercion, nepotism or any other such means. The long years of master subject relationship with little sharing of authority with people has resulted in a psyche which has become intolerant, short tempered and confrontationist. These tendencies run through in all the facets from politics to family life. The roles of social institutions were relegated to authoritarian culture fully supported by the state power. As a result this institutional structure did not take cognizance of the demands of the independence which brought socio political awakening in the people. This situation of a strange anomaly was created which needs corrective actions through the democratization of social institutions. Do the existing social institutions and public policy match the needs of changing realities of our society? The answer is an embarrassing No. The public policy and social institutions working coherently provide structure to the society to make the life of its people organized, manageable and generally satisfied. Hence the rules of business of these institutions have to be framed and practiced in a judicious way to accommodate the needs, requirements and aspirations of the people who are being governed by these institutions. The conflict arose because of the use of discretionary authority without judicious interpretation. The results have been: i) Failure of the institutions in the achievement of its objectives, ii) Reaction by the polity rendered the institutions ineffective and redundant. It is imminent that planners, managers, administrators and implementers need to be qualified and trained in public policy formulation, implementation and analysis. It is obvious that rules of business for managing the human resources have to be different than plastic commodities. This leads to the domain of human relations, communication, motivation and discipline. There are several options to resolve conflict situations which will lead to consensus building on institutional basis. But this change needs more than rhetoric. It needs a change of attitude. Human attitudes and behaviors do not change easily, since they are firmly rooted in their psyche. If we intend to change the behavior of our management structures we will have to scientifically organize and affect a meaningful change in our human resource departments who are responsible for formulation, implementation and analysis of public policy and social institutions. The early draft of this book was read by Dr. Ghais ul Haq, Masood Muzaffar and Asad Wahidi. Masood examined and analyzed the manuscript thoroughly despite his overseas travel commitments. It helped to improve the draft and challenged some assumptions. Asad also examined the draft as a keen analyst and provided useful interventions some of which have been included. I am appreciative of their time, effort and help. I am grateful to Dr. Zahid Hussain for the final editing of this book. Having said all that, I would appreciate candid comments from readers on this modest though challenging effort. My special thanks are due to Zulfiqar Ali Joya and Muhammad Usman Gujjar for the great pains they took in composing, formatting and presenting this book. However, I am solely responsible for any errors or omissions in this book.

The Decision Making Process Of Investor State Arbitration Tribunals

Author: Mary Mitsi
Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.
ISBN: 9041196579
Size: 49.17 MB
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In the course of a single investor-state dispute, an arbitrator may make numerous decisions, from interpreting the treaty or national laws to taking into account case law, customs and policies. In practice, this process raises important issues regarding the consistency of decisions and the predictability and legitimacy of the decision-making process in general. Investment arbitration tribunals have developed a specialised process of legal decision making adapted to the interpretational needs that arise in the context of an investor-state dispute and to the transnational characteristics of the investment arbitration framework. This is the first book to offer an in-depth analysis of the transnational characteristics of investment arbitration and to analyse the interpretive arguments of investment tribunals and the way they use treaties, precedent, policies, general principles of law and customary law in their decision-making process. Drawing on publicly available arbitral case law supplemented with personal interviews with investment arbitrators, the author touches on such concepts and practices as the following: - an overview of various decision-making genres of arbitral tribunals: attitudinal, economic, strategic and legal; - the legal argumentation triptych of language–rhetoric–dialogue; - the specific language arbitrators have developed when interpreting the law; - how arbitrators use the concepts 'standards', 'rules', 'principles' and 'rights'; - the importance of the legal reasoning of arbitral awards and the role of rhetoric therein; - concepts of 'acceptability', 'audience' and 'legitimacy'; - limitations of the public international law interpretive methodology enshrined in the Vienna Convention; - interpretation of precedents, customary law, general principles of law and policies; - the way national and international legal orders interact in the context of interpretation; and - how decision-making is connected to the issues of predictability, consistency and the rule of law. The core of the book proposes a novel, full- edged dialogical network theory for analysing the interpretation process. As an exemplary demonstration of developing theory to keep up with practice, this unique book provides a deeply engaged means for enhancing the practice of international arbitration. Its introduction of a new field of interdisciplinary analysis employing legal argumentation theories is sure to provide inestimable guidance for institutions and policymakers, especially in light of recent proposals for the creation of a permanent investment arbitration court. Given that unveiling the legal decision-making process is critical for the well-being of the whole dispute resolution procedure, and that being aware of how arbitrators interpret the law can constitute a roadmap for counsel's arguments and approaches when dealing with cross-border disputes, the topic of this book is relevant for both academics and practitioners, and its signifcance can only grow as recourse to investor-state arbitration continues to expand.

The Public Policy Primer

Author: Xun Wu
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317229924
Size: 38.56 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Fully revised for a second edition, this essential guide provides a concise and accessible overview of the public policy process: agenda-setting, policy formulation, decision-making, implementation, and evaluation. The book provides an introduction to the key policy functions, the challenges they entail, and how the challenges may be addressed by policy actors. Written from a comparative perspective, the authors include examples from a diverse range of countries at different stages of development, highlighting key principles and practices through which policy actors can effectively manage their policy processes and outcomes. Key features of the second edition: fully updated and revised content throughout; expanded references and further reading; more guidance towards understanding the key concepts in public policy. This important tool offers students of public policy and policy practitioners guidance on how to make, implement, and evaluate public policies in ways that improve citizens' lives.

Peace Studies Public Policy And Global Security Volume Vii

Author: Ursula Oswald Spring, Ada Aharoni, Ralph V. Summy, Robert Charles Elliot
Publisher: EOLSS Publications
ISBN: 1848263503
Size: 32.60 MB
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Peace Studies, Public Policy and Global Security is a component of Encyclopedia of Social Sciences and Humanities in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. The Theme on Peace Studies, Public Policy and Global Security provides the essential aspects and a myriad of issues of great relevance to our world such as: Processes of Peace and Security; International Security, Peace, Development, and Environment; Security Threats, Challenges, Vulnerability and Risks; Sustainable Food and Water Security; World Economic Order. This 11-volume set contains several chapters, each of size 5000-30000 words, with perspectives, issues on Peace studies, Public Policy and Global security. These volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers and NGOs.

Lobbyists Governments And Public Trust Volume 3 Implementing The Oecd Principles For Transparency And Integrity In Lobbying

Author: OECD
Publisher: OECD Publishing
ISBN: 9264214224
Size: 39.12 MB
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This report takes stock of progress made in implementing the 2010 Recommendation on Principles for Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying – the only international instrument addressing major risks in the public decision-making process related to lobbying.

Policy Tools For Allocative Efficiency Of Health Services

Author: Xingzhu Liu
Publisher: World Health Organization
ISBN: 9789241562522
Size: 70.23 MB
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This study is a result of trying to answer for the WHO the question, "Are there any policy tools that have been shown to improve the allocative efficiency of health care provision?" It does not simply tell policy-makers which tools to take up, but rather how to determine which ones are more likely to be feasible and effective, given particular circumstances of political and administrative capacity, knowledge on the part of both providers and consumers, and other factors which affect whether a policy tool can be used, and with what outcome.

California Politics And Government A Practical Approach

Author: Larry Gerston
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 0495566500
Size: 19.79 MB
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Taking a unique nuts-and-bolts approach, the concise CALIFORNIA POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT: A PRACTICAL APPROACH, 10E, gives students insight into real-life politics as it vividly illustrates the complex principles at work in state government. Current examples and clear explanations give students a solid understanding of the ins and outs of the California government. Thoroughly updated, the new edition addresses many complex economic, social, education, and immigration issues and their impact on state politics. The tenth edition includes new court cases, updates on the ongoing budget crisis, coverage of the 2008 elections, changes in government regulations, and more. In addition, public policy coverage is thoroughly integrated throughout the text, helping students make connections and see firsthand the impact and practical applications of government and legislation on their own lives. Clear, concise, and straightforward, CALIFORNIA POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT: A PRACTICAL APPROACH, 10E, equips students with a solid understanding of how government and politics really work as well as how they affect the students' world now and in the future. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.