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Reading And Language Processing

Author: John M. Henderson
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1317759567
Size: 63.78 MB
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This volume was designed to identify the current limits of progress in the psychology of reading and language processing in an information processing framework. Leaders in their fields of interest, the chapter authors couple current theoretical analyses with new, formally presented experiments. The research -- cutting-edge and sometimes controversial -- reflects the prevailing analysis that language comprehension results in numerous levels of representation, including surface features, lexical properties, linguistic structures, and idea networks underlying a message as well as the situations to which a message refers. As a group, the chapters highlight the impact that input modality -- auditory or written -- has on comprehension. Finally, the studies also capture the evolution of new topic matter and ongoing debates concerning the competing paradigms, global proposals, and methods that form the foundation of the enterprise. The book presents current accounts of research on word-, sentence-, and text-processing. It will prove informative for experimental psychologists as well as investigators in cognitive science disciplines such as computer science, linguistics, and educational psychology. The book will also be very helpful to graduate students who wish to develop expertise in the psychology of language processes. For them, it collects, in a single volume, readings that are representative of progress concerning many central problems in the field. As such, it is distinct from the numerous collected volumes that concentrate on a single issue. Complete author and subject indexes facilitate effective use of the volume.

A Guide To Readiness Reading

Author: Philip J. McInnis
Size: 23.92 MB
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Describes the Assured Readiness for Learning program (ARL), a language training program for kindergarten and first grade that can be used with the upper elementary grades for remedial instruction.

Second Language Processing In Reading And Translation

Author: Jung Hyun Lim
ISBN: 9781124973234
Size: 53.33 MB
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The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the processing mechanisms of non-native English speakers at both the sentence level and the morphological level, addressing the issue of whether adult second language (l2) learners qualitatively differ from native speakers in processing linguistic input. Using psycholinguistic on-line techniques (self-paced reading and eye-tracking paradigms) plus an off-line translation task, four experiments explore the use of syntactic and semantic information in l2 comprehension and the sensitivity to morphological violations in l2 processing by Korean late learners of English. A translation paradigm is used to examine how morphosyntactic and semantic knowledge are integrated in the language learner's mind. Task effects are examined by comparing cognitive processes involved in reading for comprehension and reading for translation. The degree to which l2 proficiency modulates processing behaviors is also considered. Experiments 1 and 2 investigate how Korean learners of English integrate syntactic and semantic knowledge during processing l2 input in a translation task, using active/passive structures in English. The results demonstrate that l2 learners use both syntactic and semantic processing routes and that their interpretations are sometimes unfaithful to original context but often contain correct morphosyntax when output from the two routes conflict. Experiment 3 examines l2 learners' reading behaviors compared to native speakers and the possible influences of reading goals on reading behaviors of l2 readers. The results reveal that reading time patterns of l2 learners are similar to that of native speakers, although l2 learners are influenced by semantic information to greater extent than native speakers. The results also indicate that the use of syntactic information in l2 speakers becomes more automatic as l2 proficiency increases, and that the translation task forces low-proficiency learners to increase attentions to syntactic information during on-line comprehension. Experiment 4 explores in an eye-tracking paradigm whether l2 learners show sensitivity to subject-verb agreement violations similar to native speakers during on-line comprehension, and how task effects modulate the sensitivity. The results show that l2 learners are able to display sensitivity to morphological violations during reading, and that the translation task forces l2 speakers to perform deeper processing, resulting in more native-like processing. All together, the four experiments in this dissertation make contributions to l2 processing research, mainly revealing (a) l2 learners' syntactic representations computed during on-line comprehension are not underused (under certain task conditions); (b) l2 learners' sensitivity to subject-verb agreement violations are not reduced (under certain task conditions); and (c) reading goals and l2 proficiency affect the depth of processing in l2 comprehension. The overall results are discussed in lights of "good-enough" and goal-dependent (Christianson et al., 2001; Ferreira & Patson, 2007; Swets et al., 2008) language processing in l2, pointing to quantitative, rather than qualitative differences between l1 and l2 processing. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest llc. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:].

Age Differences In Word And Language Processing

Author: P.A. Allen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080526867
Size: 30.73 MB
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Component cognitive processes have played a critical role in the development of experimental aging research and theory in psychology as attested by articles published on this theme. However, in the last five to ten years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of articles attempting to isolate a single factor (or small subset of factors) responsible for age differences in information processing. This view of aging is frequently termed the complexity model of the generalized slowing model, the primary assumption being that age differences in cognition are due simply to a relatively larger performance decrement on the part of older adults (compared to younger adults) as task complexity increases. Because generalized complexity theorists have questioned the utility of using component cognitive processes as theoretical constructs, the editors feel it is time to restate why component cognitive processes are critical to any thorough understanding of age differences in cognition. Thus the present edited volume represents an attempt to demonstrate the utility of the process-specific approach to cognitive aging. Central to this effort are illustrations of how regression analyses may provide evidence for general slowing by maximizing explained variance while at the same time obscuring local sources of variance. The book concentrates on age differences in word and language processing, because these factors relate to reading which is a critical cognitive process used in everyday life. Furthermore, age differences in word and language processing illustrate the importance of taking component cognitive processes into consideration. The breadth of coverage of the book attests to the wide range of cognitive processes involved in word and language processing.

Language Processing And Disorders

Author: Linda Escobar
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1527511952
Size: 45.89 MB
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Language processing is considered as an important part of cognition, with an ever-increasing amount of studies conducted on this field. This volume brings together research on language processing and disorders presented at the Experimental Psycholinguistics Conference in Madrid. It covers topics ranging across syntax processing, second language acquisition, bilingualism, lexical processing, and language disorders. The contributions here include studies about universal quantifiers, prepositional phrases, relative clauses, argument structure, personal pronouns, modal particles, anaphoras, relative clauses, long distance extractions, light verbs, small clauses, inflectional morphology, focus particles, prosody, acoustics, and phonotactics.

Language Processing In Bilinguals Rle Linguistics C Applied Linguistics

Author: Jyotsna Vaid
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317933133
Size: 24.41 MB
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For decades, bilingualism has resisted definition. If bilingualism is defined as habitual, fluent, correct and accent-free use of two languages, few individuals would qualify as bilinguals. A more viable approach may be to concede that ‘bilingual’ can be seen instead as a range of points on a continuum that allows for differences. The psychological study of bilingualism encompasses a wide range of phenomena including the organization and representation of the grammar, the perception and production of language mixing, cerebral lateralization of language functions, and patterns of recovery of aphasic patients. This book collects together an international array of researchers in experimental psychology, linguistics and neuropsychology, who bring their expertise to bear on the critical issues that are raised by the bilingual phenomena.

Linguistic Structure In Language Processing

Author: G.N. Carlson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400927290
Size: 77.68 MB
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The papers in this volume are intended to exemplify the state of experimental psycho linguistics in the middle to later 1980s. Our over riding impression is that the field has come a long way since the earlier work of the 1950s and 1960s, and that the field has emerged with a renewed strength from a difficult period in the 1970s. Not only are the theoretical issues more sharply defined and integrated with existing issues from other domains ("modularity" being one such example), but the experimental techniques employed are much more sophisticated, thanks to the work of numerous psychologists not necessarily interested in psycholinguistics, and thanks to improving technologies unavailable a few years ago (for instance, eye-trackers). We selected papers that provide a coherent, overall picture of existing techniques and issues. The volume is organized much as one might organize an introductory linguistics course - beginning with sound and working "up" to mean ing. Indeed, the first paper, Rebecca Treiman's, begins with considera tion of syllable structure, a phonological consideration, and the last, Alan Garnham's, exemplifies some work on the interpretation of pro nouns, a semantic matter. In between are found works concentrating on morphemes, lexical structures, and syntax. The cross-section represented in this volume is by necessity incom plete, since we focus only on experimental work directed at under standing how adults comprehend and produce language. We do not include any works on language acquisition, first or second.

The Handbook Of Computational Linguistics And Natural Language Processing

Author: Alexander Clark
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118448677
Size: 24.33 MB
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This comprehensive reference work provides an overview of theconcepts, methodologies, and applications in computationallinguistics and natural language processing (NLP). Features contributions by the top researchers in the field,reflecting the work that is driving the discipline forward Includes an introduction to the major theoretical issues inthese fields, as well as the central engineering applications thatthe work has produced Presents the major developments in an accessible way,explaining the close connection between scientific understanding ofthe computational properties of natural language and the creationof effective language technologies Serves as an invaluable state-of-the-art reference source forcomputational linguists and software engineers developing NLPapplications in industrial research and development labs ofsoftware companies

Morphological Aspects Of Language Processing

Author: Laurie Beth Feldman
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1134778333
Size: 32.65 MB
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It is now well established that phonological -- and orthographic -- codes play a crucial role in the recognition of isolated words and in understanding the sequences of words that comprise a sentence. However, words and sentences are organized with respect to morphological as well as phonological components. It is thus unfortunate that the morpheme has received relatively little attention in the experimental literature, either from psychologists or linguists. Due to recent methodological developments, however, now is an opportune time to address morphological issues. In the experimental literature, there is a tendency to examine various psycholinguistic processes in English and then to assume that the account given applies with equal significance to English and to other languages. Written languages differ, however, in the extent to which they capture phonological as contrasted with morphological units. Moreover, with respect to the morpheme, languages differ in the principle by which morphemes are connected to form new words. This volume focuses on morphological processes in word recognition and reading with an eye toward comparing morphological processes with orthographic and phonological processes. Cross-language comparisons are examined as a tool with which to probe universal linguistic processes, and a variety of research methodologies are described. Because it makes the experimental literature in languages other than English more accessible, this book is expected to be of interest to many readers. It also directs attention to the subject of language processing in general -- an issue which is of central interest to cognitive psychologists and linguists as well as educators and clinicians.

Signs For Developing Reading

Author: Emil Holmer
Publisher: Linköping University Electronic Press
ISBN: 9176857670
Size: 24.47 MB
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Reading development is supported by strong language skills, not least in deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. The work in the present thesis investigates reading development in DHH children who use sign language, attend Regional Special Needs Schools (RSNS) in Sweden and are learning to read. The primary aim of the present work was to investigate whether the reading skills of these children can be improved via computerized sign language based literacy training. Another aim was to investigate concurrent and longitudinal associations between skills in reading, sign language, and cognition in this population. The results suggest that sign language based literacy training may support development of word reading. In addition, awareness and manipulation of the sub-lexical structure of sign language seem to assist word reading, and imitation of familiar signs (i.e., vocabulary) may be associated with developing reading comprehension. The associations revealed between sign language skills and reading development support the notion that sign language skills provide a foundation for emerging reading skills in DHH signing children. In addition, the results also suggest that working memory and Theory of Mind (ToM) are related to reading comprehension in this population. Furthermore, the results indicate that sign language experience enhances the establishment of representations of manual gestures, and that progression in ToM seems to be typical, although delayed, in RSNS pupils. Working memory has a central role in integrating environmental stimuli and language-mediated representations, and thereby provides a platform for cross-modal language processing and multimodal language development.