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Reading Comprehension Difficulties

Author: Cesare Cornoldi
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136488626
Size: 13.19 MB
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Recognizing the characteristics of children with learning disabilities and deciding how to help them is a problem faced by schools all over the world. Although some disorders are fairly easily recognizable (e.g., mental retardation) or very specific to single components of performance and quite rare (e.g., developmental dyscalculia), schools must consider much larger populations of children with learning difficulties who cannot always be readily classified. These children present high-level learning difficulties that affect their performance on a variety of school tasks, but the underlying problem is often their difficulty in understanding written text. In many instances, despite good intellectual abilities and a superficial ability to cope with written texts and to use language appropriately, some children do not seem to grasp the most important elements, or cannot find the pieces of information they are looking for. Sometimes these difficulties are not immediately detected by the teacher in the early school years. They may be hidden because the most obvious early indicators of reading progress in the teacher's eyes do not involve comprehension of written texts or because the first texts a child encounters are quite simple and reflect only the difficulty level of the oral messages (sentences, short stories, etc.) with which the child is already familiar. However, as years go by and texts get more complex, comprehension difficulties will become increasingly apparent and increasingly detrimental to effective school learning. In turn, studying, assimilating new information, and many other situations requiring text comprehension -- from problem solving to reasoning with linguistic contents -- could be affected. Problems with decoding, dyslexia, and language disorders have attracted more interest from researchers than have specific comprehension problems and have occupied more room in specialized journals. Normal reading comprehension has also been a favorite with researchers. However, scarce interest has been paid to subjects who have comprehension difficulties. This book is an attempt to remedy this situation. In so doing, this volume answers the following questions: * Does a reading comprehension problem exist in schools? * How important and widespread is the problem? * Is the problem specific? * How can a reading comprehension difficulty be defined and identified? * Does the "syndrome" have a single pattern or can different subtypes be identified? * What are the main characteristics associated with a reading comprehension difficulty? * When can other well-identified problems add to our understanding of reading comprehension difficulties? * Which educational strategies are effective in preventing and treating reading comprehension difficulties? * What supplementary information can we get from an international perspective?

Reading Comprehension Strategies

Author: Danielle S. McNamara
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1136679286
Size: 69.92 MB
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First published in 2007. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Supporting Dyslexic Adults In Higher Education And The Workplace

Author: Nicola Brunswick
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470974796
Size: 17.64 MB
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Supporting Dyslexic Adults provides an overview of the latest research and best practice in supporting adults with dyslexia in higher education and employment. Many of these individuals may have received little or no dyslexia-specific support throughout their school lives; some will not have had their dyslexia identified until they reached university or started work. This book provides guidance on practical support that can be offered to dyslexic adults, and processes which can alleviate the emotional issues they face. The first section of the book focuses on dyslexia in higher education; it covers screening and identifying dyslexia in adulthood, and offers hands-on assistance for dyslexic students, to enhance their learning. Examples of successful practical support from universities and colleges are included to guide practitioners. The second section advises on supporting dyslexic adults in the workplace, preparing individuals for work, and offering strategies on disclosing their particular needs to employers and colleagues. It also considers the legal aspects of dyslexia support and crucially highlights the skills and strengths that dyslexic adults can bring to the workplace. Contributions are written by a wide range of experts in the field. Each one possesses a wealth of practical experience which provides invaluable guidance for dyslexic adults, professionals who support dyslexic adults, and employers of dyslexic staff.

Improving Reading Comprehension Of Middle And High School Students

Author: Kristi L. Santi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319147358
Size: 70.18 MB
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This volume focuses on our understanding of the reading comprehension of adolescents in a high stakes academic environment. Leading researchers share their most current research on each issue, covering theory and empirical research from a range of specializations, including various content areas, English language learners, students with disabilities, and reading assessment. Topics discussed include: cognitive models of reading comprehension and how they relate to typical or atypical development of reading comprehension, reading in history classes, comprehension of densely worded and symbolic mathematical texts, understanding causality in science texts, the more rigorous comprehension standards in English language arts classes, balancing the practical and measurement constraints of the assessment of reading comprehension, understanding the needs and challenges of English language learners and students in special education with respect to the various content areas discussed in this book. This book is of interest to researchers in literacy and educational psychology as well as curriculum developers.

The Metalinguistic Dimension In Instructed Second Language Learning

Author: Karen Roehr
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 1441168567
Size: 27.17 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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The metalinguistic dimension refers to the way in which learners bring to bear knowledge about language into their learning of a second language, the "L2". This book brings together new research on the metalinguistic dimension, given its increasing importance in the study of L2 acquisition. In applied linguistics it is widely accepted that L2 learners develop and use knowledge about language when engaging with the challenging task of acquiring a new language; this applies to both children and adults. It is definitions of the metalinguistic dimension that vary, and findings regarding its role in L2 learning are not necessarily homogenous or compatible. The scope exists for further, empirical, detailed research. This book explores the nature, development and role of the metalinguistic dimension and will be essential reading for all SLA scholars and those working in language and education.

Problems And Interventions In Literacy Development

Author: P. Reitsma
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792355571
Size: 30.64 MB
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From August 19-23 1996 an international expert meeting on problems and interventions in literacy development took place in Amsterdam. The meeting was organized by Pieter Reitsma (Paedologisch Instituut - Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam) and Ludo Verhoeven (University of Nijmegen), and funded by the Dutch National Science Foundation. Various experts in the field of literacy problems from 12 countries attended the meeting while presenting a paper based on current peESpectives and recent research. A selection of the papers being presented is now integrated into a single academic reference, after being edited and updated. The editors wish to thank all contributors to this volume for redrafting their original papers. The present volume aims to integrate recent research in field of literacy problems and interventions into a single academic reference. The volume will capture the state of the art in the rapidly expanding field of literacy problems and interventions. The target group of readers of this volume includes researchers and graduate students in language and literacy development. Moreover, the book is of interest for practitioners working in the field of literacy problems. Pieter Reitsma and Ludo Verhoeven vii LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS Peter Afflerbach - University of Maryland, 2304C Benjamin Building, College Park MD 20742, USA Jesus Alegria - Universite Libre de Bruxelles, LAPSE CP 191, Avenue F. Roosevelt 50, B-1050 Bruxelles, Belgium Elisabeth Arnbak - Department of General & Applied Linguistics, Njalsgade 80, DK-2300 Copenhagen, Denmark Janwillem Bast - Paedologisch Instituut-VU Amsterdam, Postbus 303, 1115 ZG Duivendrecht, The Netherlands.

Developmental Psychology

Author: Margaret Harris
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 9781841691923
Size: 17.76 MB
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This text provides an up-to-date account of theory & research in the rapidly changing field of child development. It is designed for undergraduate students & will also be of interest to those in education & healthcare studying child development.

Specific Learning Disabilities

Author: Yitzchak Frank
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199342040
Size: 57.74 MB
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This book is a concise but comprehensive review of Specific Learning Disabilities, with a special attention to the biology of these diverse conditions. The reader will get a review of most aspects of SLD, including the different clinical syndromes (mostly dyslexia and dyscalculia), the clinical manifestations and the therapeutic approaches. It is unique in the proportion of its content dedicated to the biological aspects of SLD. It attempts to assemble and present the biological knowledge which has been accumulated on these conditions. This knowledge includes the neurological anatomy of dyslexia and dyscalculia, demonstrated with the help of modern neuro-imaging studies, and the physiology and the genetics of these conditions, again demonstrated by recently available technologies. These new technologies produced major discoveries related to SLD including the importance of phonological processing in reading, the presence of "number center ̈in the brain, and the rain networks involved in reading. We recognize that many dyslexic subjects have a deficit in aspects of language processing, specifically phonological processing; that dyscalculia can be the result of a number of distinct cognitive impairments, and that the basic underlying deficit in many cases of SLD may be a genetic variation. The same new biological investigative techniques can, like never before, measure the outcome of therapeutic techniques and learning methods. Such measurements will, in the future, be the "gold standard ̈in assessing the efficacy of different methods of classroom teaching in regular and different learners. Last, unlike many other publications on SLD, this book discusses the relatively unrecognized emotional aspects of SLD, and the sometime devastating effects that these conditions have on the life of affected subjects and their families, in and out of the classroom.

Bilingualism And Bilingual Deaf Education

Author: Marc Marschark
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199371830
Size: 41.97 MB
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In Bilingualism and Bilingual Deaf Education, volume editors Marc Marschark, Gladys Tang, and Harry Knoors bring together diverse issues and evidence in two related domains: bilingualism among deaf learners - in sign language and the written/spoken vernacular - and bilingual deaf education. The volume examines each issue with regard to language acquisition, language functioning, social-emotional functioning, and academic outcomes. It considers bilingualism and bilingual deaf education within the contexts of mainstream education of deaf and hard-of-hearing students in regular schools, placement in special schools and programs for the deaf, and co-enrollment programs, which are designed to give deaf students the best of both educational worlds. The volume offers both literature reviews and new findings across disciplines from neuropsychology to child development and from linguistics to cognitive psychology. With a focus on evidence-based practice, contributors consider recent investigations into bilingualism and bilingual programming in different educational contexts and in different countries that may have different models of using spoken and signed languages as well as different cultural expectations. The 18 chapters establish shared understandings of what are meant by "bilingualism," "bilingual education," and "co-enrollment programming," examine their foundations and outcomes, and chart directions for future research in this multidisciplinary area. Chapters are divided into three sections: Linguistic, Cognitive, and Social Foundations; Education and Bilingual Education; and Co-Enrollment Settings. Chapters in each section pay particular attention to causal and outcome factors related to the acquisition and use of these two languages by deaf learners of different ages. The impact of bilingualism and bilingual deaf education in these domains is considered through quantitative and qualitative investigations, bringing into focus not only common educational, psychological, and linguistic variables, but also expectations and reactions of the stakeholders in bilingual programming: parents, teachers, schools, and the deaf and hearing students themselves.