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Reference Manual On Scientific Evidence

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309214211
Size: 57.79 MB
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The Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, Third Edition, assists judges in managing cases involving complex scientific and technical evidence by describing the basic tenets of key scientific fields from which legal evidence is typically derived and by providing examples of cases in which that evidence has been used. First published in 1994 by the Federal Judicial Center, the Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence has been relied upon in the legal and academic communities and is often cited by various courts and others. Judges faced with disputes over the admissibility of scientific and technical evidence refer to the manual to help them better understand and evaluate the relevance, reliability and usefulness of the evidence being proffered. The manual is not intended to tell judges what is good science and what is not. Instead, it serves to help judges identify issues on which experts are likely to differ and to guide the inquiry of the court in seeking an informed resolution of the conflict. The core of the manual consists of a series of chapters (reference guides) on various scientific topics, each authored by an expert in that field. The topics have been chosen by an oversight committee because of their complexity and frequency in litigation. Each chapter is intended to provide a general overview of the topic in lay terms, identifying issues that will be useful to judges and others in the legal profession. They are written for a non-technical audience and are not intended as exhaustive presentations of the topic. Rather, the chapters seek to provide judges with the basic information in an area of science, to allow them to have an informed conversation with the experts and attorneys.

Reference Manual On Scientific Evidence

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309214254
Size: 48.41 MB
Format: PDF
View: 3174
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The Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, Third Edition, assists judges in managing cases involving complex scientific and technical evidence by describing the basic tenets of key scientific fields from which legal evidence is typically derived and by providing examples of cases in which that evidence has been used. First published in 1994 by the Federal Judicial Center, the Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence has been relied upon in the legal and academic communities and is often cited by various courts and others. Judges faced with disputes over the admissibility of scientific and technical evidence refer to the manual to help them better understand and evaluate the relevance, reliability and usefulness of the evidence being proffered. The manual is not intended to tell judges what is good science and what is not. Instead, it serves to help judges identify issues on which experts are likely to differ and to guide the inquiry of the court in seeking an informed resolution of the conflict. The core of the manual consists of a series of chapters (reference guides) on various scientific topics, each authored by an expert in that field. The topics have been chosen by an oversight committee because of their complexity and frequency in litigation. Each chapter is intended to provide a general overview of the topic in lay terms, identifying issues that will be useful to judges and others in the legal profession. They are written for a non-technical audience and are not intended as exhaustive presentations of the topic. Rather, the chapters seek to provide judges with the basic information in an area of science, to allow them to have an informed conversation with the experts and attorneys.

P5 Medicine And Justice

Author: Santo Davide Ferrara
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319670921
Size: 41.97 MB
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This book describes the state of the art and future prospects of the most important bio-medicolegal subdisciplines in the post-genomic framework of personalized medicine. Focusing on the three main themes Innovation, Unitariness and Evidence, the book addresses a wide range of topics, including: Bio-Medicolegal and Criminological Sciences, Forensic Pathology and Anthropology, Clinical and Forensic Medicine in Living Persons (from Interpersonal Violence to Personal Injury and Damage, Malpractice, Personal Identification and Age Estimation), Forensic Genetics and Genomics, and Toxicology and Imaging. The unitariness of the “Bio-Medicolegal Sciences”, historically founded on the accuracy and rigor of the methods of ascertainment and criteria of evaluation, should be re-established on the basis of molecular evidence, and used to promote Personalized Justice. Taken together, the book’s conclusions and future perspectives outline a vision of transdisciplinary innovation and future evidence in the framework of personalized justice.

Forensic Science Reform

Author: Wendy J Koen
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 012802738X
Size: 20.99 MB
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Forensic Science Reform: Protecting the Innocent is written for the nonscientist to help make complicated scientific information clear and concise enough for attorneys and judges to master. This volume covers physical forensic science, namely arson, shaken baby syndrome, non-accidental trauma, bite marks, DNA, ballistics, comparative bullet lead analysis, fingerprint analysis, and hair and fiber analysis, and contains valuable contributions from leading experts in the field of forensic science. Offers training for prosecuting attorneys on the present state of the forensic sciences in order to avoid reliance on legal precedent that lags decades behind the science Provides defense attorneys the knowledge to defend their clients against flawed science Arms innocence projects and appellate attorneys with the latest information to challenge convictions that were obtained using faulty science Uses science-specific case studies to simplify issues in forensic science for the legal professional Offers a detailed overview of both the failures and progress made in the forensic sciences, making the volume ideal for law school courses covering wrongful convictions, or for undergraduate courses on law, legal ethics, or forensics

Environmental Forensics For Persistent Organic Pollutants

Author: Gwen O'Sullivan
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0444594515
Size: 63.84 MB
Format: PDF
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Environmental Forensics for Persistent Organic Pollutants represents the state-of-the-art in environmental forensics in relation to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The book is a complete reference for practitioners and students, covering a range of topics from new analytical techniques to regulatory and legal status in the global community. Through case studies from leading international experts, real-world issues — including the allocation of responsibility for release into the environment — are resolved through the application of advanced analytical and scientific techniques. This book introduces and assesses the development of new techniques and technologies to trace the source and fate of newly emerging and classic POPs (perfluoroalkyl substances, brominated flame retardants, organochlorine pesticides, perfluorinated chemicals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls) in environmental media, including atmospheric, marine, freshwater, and urban environments. Real-world case studies show the application of advanced analytical and scientific techniques Discussion of GC*GC provides an introduction and assessment of a novel technique from leaders in the field Introduces the development of new analytical techniques (such as 2-D GC*HC and LC*LC) to trace the source and fate Raises awareness about the health and environmental impact of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Outlines the development of international measures to control POPs so that chemists can understand the legal issues

Trademark Law

Author: Adam L. Brookman
Publisher: Aspen Publishers Online
ISBN: 0735506493
Size: 78.15 MB
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This is the first practical treatise of its kind to approach trademark law from a fully integrated legal and business perspective. It walks you through the major areas of trademark practice: selecting and adopting trademarks; perfecting, exploiting, and maintaining trademark rights, asserting and defending against trademark claims; and business issues in trademark ownership. You'll find clear, concise explanations and illustrative case examples to help you take a course of action in the full range of business scenarios. This book covers every key area, including trademark selection and adoption -- trademark registration -- trade dress; conducting due diligence -- fair use of the trademarks of others -- enforcement letters -- and more.

Monitoring Vertebrate Populations

Author: William L. Thompson
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080536948
Size: 53.67 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book is written to serve as a general reference for biologists and resource managers with relatively little statistical training. It focuses on both basic concepts and practical applications to provide professionals with the tools needed to assess monitoring methods that can detect trends in populations. It combines classical finite population sampling designs with population enumeration procedures in a unified approach for obtaining abundance estimates for species of interest. The statistical information is presented in practical, easy-to-understand terminology. Presented in practical, easy-to-understand terminology Serves as a general reference for biologists and resource managers Provides the tools needed to detect trends in populations Introduces a unified approach for obtaining abundance estimates

Fake Evidence

Author: Ron Milliner
Publisher: Elm Hill
ISBN: 1400326389
Size: 24.37 MB
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Fake Evidence examines the scientific evidence offered in evolution-creation court cases from the State of Tennessee v. John Thomas Scopes in 1925 to Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District in 2005. The validity of the different types of evidence is tested against the current ideas in the scientific literature. Much of the evidence offered in the past would not be offered in such a case if held today. The first chapter of the book looks at court evidence in light of the nature of science. Court cases have been decided based on fingerprints, handwriting samples, DNA, etc. only to be overturned later. Why are evolution cases allowed to stand when the evidence used in the trial is no longer valid? The State of Tennessee v. John Thomas Scopes is the first evolution-creation case. It is discussed in chapter two. Because of its well-known attorneys, Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan, it attracted national attention. In this trial, a hoax like the Piltdown Man was offered as evidence for the proof of evolution. Chapter three moves ahead to the 1960s and considers Epperson v. Arkansas that declared laws forbidding the teaching of evolution as unconstitutional. This case is also considered in light of two other court cases decided that decade--Engel v. Vitale that removed state-initiated prayers in the classroom and Abington School District v. Schempp that ruled against a daily Bible reading in school. How were these cases similar? Since evolution had to be taught, efforts were made to have evolution and creation taught side by side. These efforts brought about two court cases--McLean v. Arkansas Board of Education and Edwards v. Aguillard. McLean v. Arkansas Board of Education dealt with an Arkansas law and was decided in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Arkansas and was limited to that region. Edwards v. Aquillard was a similar law passed in Louisiana which was appealed all the way to the United States Supreme Court. The justices declared the teaching of scientific creationism was religious teaching and thus unconstitutional. The final case that is examined in this work is Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District. The school board in Dover, Pennsylvania wanted to see its students become aware of intelligent design. A good deal of this case centered on showing that intelligent design is religious teaching so that the judge could rule against it based on the earlier court cases against a religious view being taught in public schools. Fake Evidence closes with a look at some of the view expressed against religion in Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District and the dangers found in those views. The book also contains several appendices, including one on “The Fruits of Evolution.”