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Science Secrets

Author: Alberto A. Martinez
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Press
ISBN: 0822980177
Size: 34.51 MB
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Was Darwin really inspired by Galápagos finches? Did Einstein’s wife secretly contribute to his theories? Did Franklin fly a kite in a thunderstorm? Did a falling apple lead Newton to universal gravity? Did Galileo drop objects from the Leaning Tower of Pisa? Did Einstein really believe in God? Science Secrets answers these questions and many others. It is a unique study of how myths evolve in the history of science. Some tales are partly true, others are mostly false, yet all illuminate the tension between the need to fairly describe the past and the natural desire to fill in the blanks. Energetically narrated, Science Secrets pits famous myths against extensive research from primary sources in order to accurately portray important episodes in the sciences. Alberto A. Martínez analyzes how such myths grow and rescues neglected facts that are more captivating than famous fictions. Moreover, he shows why opinions that were once secret and seemingly impossible are now scientifically compelling. The book includes new findings related to the Copernican revolution, alchemy, Pythagoras, young Einstein, and other events and figures in the history of science.

Einstein S Wife

Author: Allen Esterson
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262039613
Size: 49.52 MB
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Was Einstein's first wife his uncredited coauthor, unpaid assistant, or his unacknowledged helpmeet? The real “Mileva Story.” Albert Einstein's first wife, Mileva Einstein-Maric, was forgotten for decades. When a trove of correspondence between them beginning in their student days was discovered in 1986, her story began to be told. Some of the tellers of the “Mileva Story” made startling claims: that she was a brilliant mathematician who surpassed her husband, and that she made uncredited contributions to his most celebrated papers in 1905, including his paper on special relativity. This book, based on extensive historical research, uncovers the real “Mileva Story.” Mileva was one of the few women of her era to pursue higher education in science; she and Einstein were students together at the Zurich Polytechnic. Mileva's ambitions for a science career, however, suffered a series of setbacks—failed diploma examinations, a disagreement with her doctoral dissertation adviser, an out-of-wedlock pregnancy by Einstein. She and Einstein married in 1903 and had two sons, but the marriage failed. Was Mileva her husband's uncredited coauthor, unpaid assistant, or his essential helpmeet? It's tempting to believe that she was her husband's secret collaborator, but the authors of Einstein's Wife look at the actual evidence, and a chapter by Ruth Lewin Sime offers important historical context. The story they tell is that of a brave and determined young woman who struggled against a variety of obstacles at a time when science was not very welcoming to women.

Newton S Apple And Other Myths About Science

Author: Ronald L. Numbers
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674967984
Size: 59.17 MB
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A falling apple inspired the law of gravity—or so the story goes. Is it true? Perhaps not. But why do such stories endure as explanations of how science happens? Newton’s Apple and Other Myths about Science brushes away popular misconceptions to provide a clearer picture of scientific breakthroughs from ancient times to the present.

An Einstein Encyclopedia

Author: Alice Calaprice
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691141746
Size: 66.19 MB
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This is the single most complete guide to Albert Einstein's life and work for students, researchers, and browsers alike. Written by three leading Einstein scholars who draw on their combined wealth of expertise gained during their work on the Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, this authoritative and accessible reference features more than one hundred entries and is divided into three parts covering the personal, scientific, and public spheres of Einstein’s life. An Einstein Encyclopedia contains entries on Einstein’s birth and death, family and romantic relationships, honors and awards, educational institutions where he studied and worked, citizenships and immigration to America, hobbies and travels, plus the people he befriended and the history of his archives and the Einstein Papers Project. Entries on Einstein’s scientific theories provide useful background and context, along with details about his assistants, collaborators, and rivals, as well as physics concepts related to his work. Coverage of Einstein’s role in public life includes entries on his Jewish identity, humanitarian and civil rights involvements, political and educational philosophies, religion, and more. Commemorating the hundredth anniversary of the theory of general relativity, An Einstein Encyclopedia also includes a chronology of Einstein’s life and appendixes that provide information for further reading and research, including an annotated list of a selection of Einstein’s publications and a review of selected books about Einstein. More than 100 entries cover the rich details of Einstein’s personal, professional, and public life Authoritative entries explain Einstein’s family relationships, scientific achievements, political activities, religious views, and more More than 40 illustrations include photos of Einstein and his circle plus archival materials A chronology of Einstein’s life, appendixes, and suggestions for further reading provide essential details for further research

The Cult Of Pythagoras

Author: Alberto A. Martinez
ISBN: 9780822962700
Size: 58.32 MB
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Martínez discusses various popular myths from the history of mathematics. Some stories are partly true, others are entirely false, but all show the power of invention in history. Martínez inspects a wealth of primary sources, in several languages, over a span of many centuries. By exploring disagreements and ambiguities in the history of the elements of mathematics, The Cult of Pythagoras dispels myths that obscure the actual origins of mathematical concepts. Chosen as a major selection by Scientific American Book Club (Library of Science(R))

Burned Alive

Author: Alberto A. Martinez
Publisher: Reaktion Books
ISBN: 1780239408
Size: 12.13 MB
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In 1600, the Catholic Inquisition condemned the philosopher and cosmologist Giordano Bruno for heresy, and he was then burned alive in the Campo de’ Fiori in Rome. Historians, scientists, and philosophical scholars have traditionally held that Bruno’s theological beliefs led to his execution, denying any link between his study of the nature of the universe and his trial. But in Burned Alive, Alberto A. Martínez draws on new evidence to claim that Bruno’s cosmological beliefs—that the stars are suns surrounded by planetary worlds like our own, and that the Earth moves because it has a soul—were indeed the primary factor in his condemnation. Linking Bruno’s trial to later confrontations between the Inquisition and Galileo in 1616 and 1633, Martínez shows how some of the same Inquisitors who judged Bruno challenged Galileo. In particular, one clergyman who authored the most critical reports used by the Inquisition to condemn Galileo in 1633 immediately thereafter wrote an unpublished manuscript in which he denounced Galileo and other followers of Copernicus for their beliefs about the universe: that many worlds exist and that the Earth moves because it has a soul. Challenging the accepted history of astronomy to reveal Bruno as a true innovator whose contributions to the science predate those of Galileo, this book shows that is was cosmology, not theology, that led Bruno to his death.

The Media Versus The Apprentice

Author: Alberto Martinez
ISBN: 9781731489241
Size: 60.73 MB
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This book is about the conflicts between Donald Trump and the media during the U. S. Presidential Election of 2016. Reporters and political commentators discussed with horror the controversial campaign words of Mr. Trump, while in turn he brashly claimed that they were "totally dishonest." Who was right? Professor Alberto Martínez meticulously analyzes infamous incidents and news stories to find out how accurately the news media covered the tempestuous candidate. Surprisingly, Martínez finds that the media often failed to accurately report the news. Fiction was reported as news. Alberto A. Martinez is a professor of History at the University of Texas at Austin. He is the author of five other books, including Science Secrets: The Truth About Darwin's Finches, Einstein's Wife, and Other Myths (University of Pittsburgh, 2011). He also writes articles for periodicals such as The Hill, SALON, The Austin American-Statesman, the USA Today newspapers, Scientific American, The Houston Chronicle, The Daily Texan, Latina, New Standard Press, The Chronicle of Higher Education, Sloan Science & Film, and others. Reviews of Martínez's past books: "his scholarship is admirable. Every subject needs its history told in a careful and useful manner, and Martínez clearly succeeds in this endeavor." ⎼ Choice "at once scholarly and readable. ... anyone with an interest in intellectual history would benefit." ⎼ Books & Culture

Pythagoras Bruno Galileo

Author: Alberto Martinez
Publisher: CreateSpace
ISBN: 9781505264722
Size: 78.67 MB
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In 1616, the Inquisition denounced "the false Pythagorean doctrine" that the Earth moves around the Sun. Cardinal Bellarmino admonished Galileo to abandon that doctrine. Galileo had attributed it to Pythagoras, and he had found evidence "to revive the old opinion of Pythagoras that the Moon is another Earth." Even the planets seemed to be other worlds. But Galileo did not realize that he was connecting the theory of Earth's motion with offensive pagan beliefs. For more than a thousand years, famous theologians and saints had denounced the Pythagoreans for heresies and blasphemies. This book traces the growth of controversial beliefs about cosmology. This is the only account that sets the Copernican Revolution in that neglected context, tracing the thread of Pythagorean beliefs in the works of Copernicus and his most famous followers: Bruno, Gilbert, Kepler, Galilei, and Campanella. It shows, surprisingly, that the Inquisition's prolonged and deadly proceedings against Giordano Bruno were caused essentially by Bruno's obstinate allegiance to Pythagorean beliefs, including the existence of many worlds and heretical beliefs about the soul of the world. Contrary to Catholic beliefs, the Copernicans claimed that the Earth moves because it has a soul. Using a wealth of new sources, Martinez shows that such concerns greatly affected also the Inquisition's proceedings against Galileo. The book includes the discovery of Cardinal Bellarmino's critiques of Giordano Bruno's heretical ideas; plus, the revealing condemnation of such ideas also in the writings of Bellarmino's allies. Most importantly, Martinez presents the very first analysis of an unpublished, utterly neglected but extremely revealing document: a 210-page rare manuscript by Galileo's most critical judge in his trial of 1633, actually explaining why the Inquisition condemned the Copernicans, the sect of new "Pythagoreans." The book relies on rich and meticulous documentation from rare primary sources and new translations. It rescues neglected aspects of history that are more dramatic than historical myths. It shows how the Christians criticized Pythagorean beliefs about demons, hell, the Earth, immortality, the transmigration of souls, magic, and divination. And it reveals the important and utterly neglected continuity between Bruno's deadly trial and the Inquisition's proceedings against Galileo.