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Solar Hydrogen Generation Transition Metal Oxides In Water Photoelectrolysis

Author: Jinghua Guo
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
ISBN: 0071701273
Size: 45.90 MB
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State-of-the-art renewable energy science research and applications Solar Hydrogen Generation: Transition Metal Oxides in Water Photoelectrolysis provides expert techniques for extracting hydrogen from water using transition metal oxides as catalysts. The basic processes of electrochemistry and photocatalysis for hydrogen production are described along with photocatalytic reactions and semiconductor photocatalysts, particularly metal oxides. This in-depth guide illustrates the corresponding crystal structure vs. electronic structure and optical properties vs. light absorption of transition metal oxides. Impurity and doped photocatalysts, integrated organic and inorganic systems, surface and interface chemistry, and nanostructure and morphology in photocatalysis applications are all addressed. This comprehensive resource introduces soft x-ray absorption (XAS), soft x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), and resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering (RIXS), followed by a description of instrumentation. COVERAGE INCLUDES: * Hydrogen generation: electrochemistry and photoelectrolysis * Photocatalytic reactions, oxidation, and reduction * Transition metal oxides * Crystal structure and electronic structure * Optical properties and light absorption * Impurity, dopants, and defects * Surface and morphology * Soft x-ray spectroscopy and electronic structure

Environmental Photochemistry

Author: Detlef W. Bahnemann
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 366246795X
Size: 48.14 MB
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This volume builds on the previous two editions, Environmental Photochemistry Part I and Part II, which reflect the diverse range of activities in this highly dynamic research field. The chapters cover fundamental topics, from photocatalyst materials, surface-modified materials, reaction kinetics and reactor modelling, to translational research activities on chemical synthesis, energy conversion and water treatment. The applications of the new generation of LED irradiation sources and spectroscopic methods for elucidating reaction pathways are also covered in detail. This new volume maintains the ethos of the previous editions by further contributing to readers’ understanding of photochemical and photocatalytic processes for environmental applications.

Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production

Author: Roel van de Krol
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461413806
Size: 18.16 MB
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Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production describes the principles and materials challenges for the conversion of sunlight into hydrogen through water splitting at a semiconducting electrode. Readers will find an analysis of the solid state properties and materials requirements for semiconducting photo-electrodes, a detailed description of the semiconductor/electrolyte interface, in addition to the photo-electrochemical (PEC) cell. Experimental techniques to investigate both materials and PEC device performance are outlined, followed by an overview of the current state-of-the-art in PEC materials and devices, and combinatorial approaches towards the development of new materials. Finally, the economic and business perspectives of PEC devices are discussed, and promising future directions indicated. Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production is a one-stop resource for scientists, students and R&D practitioners starting in this field, providing both the theoretical background as well as useful practical information on photoelectrochemical measurement techniques. Experts in the field benefit from the chapters on current state-of-the-art materials/devices and future directions.

Inorganic Metal Oxide Nanocrystal Photocatalysts For Solar Fuel Generation From Water

Author: Troy K. Townsend
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 331905242X
Size: 68.81 MB
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Troy Townsend's thesis explores the structure, energetics and activity of three inorganic nanocrystal photocatalysts. The goal of this work is to investigate the potential of metal oxide nanocrystals for application in photocatalytic water splitting, which could one day provide us with clean hydrogen fuel derived from water and solar energy. Specifically, Townsend's work addresses the effects of co-catalyst addition to niobium oxide nanotubes for photocatalytic water reduction to hydrogen, and the first use of iron oxide 'rust' in nanocrystal suspensions for oxygen production. In addition, Townsend studies a nickel/oxide-strontium titanate nanocomposite which can be described as one of only four nanoscale water splitting photocatalysts. He also examines the charge transport for this system. Overall, this collection of studies brings relevance to the design of inorganic nanomaterials for photocatalytic water splitting while introducing new directions for solar energy conversion.

Handbook Of Hydrogen Energy

Author: S.A. Sherif
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420054503
Size: 23.20 MB
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Can hydrogen and electricity supply all of the world’s energy needs? Handbook of Hydrogen Energy thoroughly explores the notion of a hydrogen economy and addresses this question. The handbook considers hydrogen and electricity as a permanent energy system and provides factual information based on science. The text focuses on a large cross section of applications such as fuel cells and catalytic combustion of hydrogen. The book also includes information on inversion curves, physical and thermodynamic tables, and properties of storage materials, data on specific heats, and compressibility and temperature–entropy charts and more. Analyzes the principles of hydrogen energy production, storage, and utilization Examines electrolysis, thermolysis, photolysis, thermochemical cycles, and production from biomass and other hydrogen production methods Covers all modes of hydrogen storage: gaseous, liquid, slush, and metal hydride storage Handbook of Hydrogen Energy serves as a resource for graduate students, as well as a reference for energy and environmental engineers and scientists.

Solar Hydrogen Generation

Author: Krishnan Rajeshwar
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387728104
Size: 79.37 MB
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Given the backdrop of intense interest and widespread discussion on the prospects of a hydrogen energy economy, this book aims to provide an authoritative and up-to-date scientific account of hydrogen generation using solar energy and renewable sources such as water. While the technological and economic aspects of solar hydrogen generation are evolving, the scientific principles underlying various solar-assisted water splitting schemes already have a firm footing. This book aims to expose a broad-based audience to these principles. This book spans the disciplines of solar energy conversion, electrochemistry, photochemistry, photoelectrochemistry, materials chemistry, device physics/engineering, and biology.

Light Water Hydrogen

Author: CRAIG GRIMES
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387682389
Size: 47.39 MB
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This book covers the field of solar production of hydrogen by water photo-splitting (photoelectrolysis) using semiconductor photoanodes. The emphasis of the discussion is on the use of nanotechnology in the field. The theories behind photocatalysis and photoelectrochemical processes responsible for hydrogen production are given in detail. This provides a state-of-the-art review of the semiconductor materials and methods used for improving the efficiency of the processes. The book also gives an account of the techniques used for making the nanostructures.

Second International Conference From Nanoparticles And Nanomaterials To Nanodevices And Nanosystems Ic4n

Author: Krishnan Rajeshwar
Publisher: The Electrochemical Society
ISBN: 1566777771
Size: 15.93 MB
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The papers included in this issue of ECS Transactions were originally presented at the 2nd International Conference from Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials to Nanodevices and Nanosystems (IC4N) Meeting, held in Rhodes, Greece, June 28 - July 3, 2009.

Heterogeneous Catalysts For The Oxygen Evolution Reaction And The Hydrolysis Of Ammonia Borane

Author: Jared Mondschein
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 79.77 MB
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Recent developments in photovoltaic technologies have enabled the cost-effective and energy efficient generation of power from sunlight. However, a key limitation preventing the widespread adoption of solar power is the inherent intermittent nature of sunlight and the current lack of a viable energy storage solution. A promising biomimetic approach is the storage of sunlight in chemical bonds, similar to the photosynthetic process employed by autotrophs. This scheme relies on the photoelectrolysis of water into oxygen gas at the anode via the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen gas at the cathode via the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The produced H2(g) is a gravimetrically dense energy carrier that could be consumed in fuel-cell powered technologies or used as a raw material in a wide variety of industrial processes ranging from ammonia production to food processing. Electrocatalysts for the HER and OER are needed to overcome poor reaction kinetics at their respective electrodes. To achieve economies of scale and to enable industrial applications, OER and HER catalysts should be capable of producing large current densities with minimal overpotentials for prolonged time periods and should be composed solely of Earth-abundant elements. The hydrogen evolution reaction can be catalyzed in strongly acidic, pH neutral, and strongly alkaline electrolytes, and several highly active corrosion-resistant electrocatalysts composed of Earth-abundant elements have been discovered in recent years. The oxygen evolution reaction can also be catalyzed in a wide pH range, but few highly active and stable Earth-abundant electrocatalysts for the OER have been discovered for operation in strongly acidic electrolytes. Indeed, the advantages of operating photoelectrochemical water splitting cells with strongly acidic electrolytes, including improved device component compatibilities, higher achievable current densities and longer periods of operation, motivates the discovery of novel acid-stable water oxidation catalysts.We first discovered that cobalt oxide thin films supported on fluorinated tin oxide were promising water oxidation catalysts in strongly acidic electrolytes, producing industrially relevant current densities at moderate overpotentials. The low dissolution rate of the Co3O4/FTO catalyst was a significant advance over previously reported Earth-abundant OER catalysts. Importantly, we found that the electrode preparation method employed in this study was critical to the observed activity and stability. We then found that intermetallics of 3d transition metals with tantalum, specifically Ni2Ta, Fe2Ta, and Co2Ta, could serve as pre-catalysts for active and stable water oxidation catalysts for use in strongly acidic electrolytes. These water-splitting anodes were synthesized as stand-alone electrodes via arc melting and polycrystalline solid-state reactions. These intermetallics displayed improved corrosion and water splitting properties over their monometallic end members.Expanding on this work, we developed a water-oxidizing anode based on the crystalline oxide Li3Co2TaO6 with demonstrated capability for prolonged operation in strongly acidic electrolytes. The durability of this catalyst could be improved by adjusting the chemical composition of the conductive support, with a platinum-supported catalyst operating for ~2x the operation time of a gold-supported catalyst. Developing synthetic routes toward high surface area Li3Co2TaO6 anodes shows promise for decreasing the overpotentials required to produce industrially relevant current densities. The transportation of photoelectrochemically-produced hydrogen gas is resource-intensive, and the development of dense solids capable of the storage and on-demand release of hydrogen is therefore of high scientific interest. Ammonia borane is a promising hydrogen storage material, capable of releasing three molar equivalents of hydrogen via catalytic hydrolysis. Unfortunately, the most active catalysts for the hydrolysis of ammonia borane are composed of noble metals, motivating the discovery of highly active, recyclable catalysts with diluted noble metal content. To this end, we discovered a class of metal ruthenate perovskites that are active catalysts for the hydrolysis of ammonia borane, a promising hydrogen storage material. These metal ruthenates exhibited turnover frequencies that are comparable to emerging Earth-abundant ammonia borane hydrolysis catalysts. Importantly, these materials expand the scope of active oxide-based catalysts, potentially motivating the synthesis of complex metal oxides as discovery targets.