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Spillover Animal Infections And The Next Human Pandemic

Author: David Quammen
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 0393239225
Size: 71.21 MB
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"[Mr. Quammen] is not just among our best science writers but among our best writers, period." —Dwight Garner, New York Times The next big human pandemic—the next disease cataclysm, perhaps on the scale of AIDS or the 1918 influenza—is likely to be caused by a new virus coming to humans from wildlife. Experts call such an event “spillover” and they warn us to brace ourselves. David Quammen has tracked this subject from the jungles of Central Africa, the rooftops of Bangladesh, and the caves of southern China to the laboratories where researchers work in space suits to study lethal viruses. He illuminates the dynamics of Ebola, SARS, bird flu, Lyme disease, and other emerging threats and tells the story of AIDS and its origins as it has never before been told. Spillover reads like a mystery tale, full of mayhem and clues and questions. When the Next Big One arrives, what will it look like? From which innocent host animal will it emerge? Will we be ready?

The Chimp And The River How Aids Emerged From An African Forest

Author: David Quammen
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 0393350851
Size: 34.57 MB
Format: PDF
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In this "frightening and fascinating masterpiece" (Walter Isaacson), David Quammen explores the true origins of HIV/AIDS. The real story of AIDS—how it originated with a virus in a chimpanzee, jumped to one human, and then infected more than 60 million people—is very different from what most of us think we know. Recent research has revealed dark surprises and yielded a radically new scenario of how AIDS began and spread. Excerpted and adapted from the book Spillover, with a new introduction by the author, Quammen's hair-raising investigation tracks the virus from chimp populations in the jungles of southeastern Cameroon to laboratories across the globe, as he unravels the mysteries of when, where, and under what circumstances such a consequential "spillover" can happen. An audacious search for answers amid more than a century of data, The Chimp and the River tells the haunting tale of one of the most devastating pandemics of our time.

Big Farms Make Big Flu

Author: Rob Wallace
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 1583675914
Size: 35.23 MB
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Thanks to breakthroughs in production and food science, agribusiness has been able to devise new ways to grow more food and get it more places more quickly. There is no shortage of news items on hundreds of thousands of hybrid poultry – each animal genetically identical to the next – packed together in megabarns, grown out in a matter of months, then slaughtered, processed and shipped to the other side of the globe. Less well known are the deadly pathogens mutating in, and emerging out of, these specialized agro-environments. In fact, many of the most dangerous new diseases in humans can be traced back to such food systems, among them Campylobacter, Nipah virus, Q fever, hepatitis E, and a variety of novel influenza variants. Agribusiness has known for decades that packing thousands of birds or livestock together results in a monoculture that selects for such disease. But market economics doesn't punish the companies for growing Big Flu – it punishes animals, the environment, consumers, and contract farmers. Alongside growing profits, diseases are permitted to emerge, evolve, and spread with little check. “That is,” writes evolutionary biologist Rob Wallace, “it pays to produce a pathogen that could kill a billion people.” In Big Farms Make Big Flu, a collection of dispatches by turns harrowing and thought-provoking, Wallace tracks the ways influenza and other pathogens emerge from an agriculture controlled by multinational corporations. Wallace details, with a precise and radical wit, the latest in the science of agricultural epidemiology, while at the same time juxtaposing ghastly phenomena such as attempts at producing featherless chickens, microbial time travel, and neoliberal Ebola. Wallace also offers sensible alternatives to lethal agribusiness. Some, such as farming cooperatives, integrated pathogen management, and mixed crop-livestock systems, are already in practice off the agribusiness grid. While many books cover facets of food or outbreaks, Wallace's collection appears the first to explore infectious disease, agriculture, economics and the nature of science together. Big Farms Make Big Flu integrates the political economies of disease and science to derive a new understanding of the evolution of infections. Highly capitalized agriculture may be farming pathogens as much as chickens or corn.

History Of Infectious Disease Pandemics In Urban Societies

Author: Mark D. Hardt
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 0739180274
Size: 27.33 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book examines the evolution of urban social patterns and infectious diseases. Tracing the historical record, it explores the human struggle to contain infectious disease and the adaption of microbes to these measures.

Missing Microbes

Author: Martin J. Blaser, MD
Publisher: Henry Holt and Company
ISBN: 0805098119
Size: 34.62 MB
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A critically important and startling look at the harmful effects of overusing antibiotics, from the field's leading expert Tracing one scientist's journey toward understanding the crucial importance of the microbiome, this revolutionary book will take readers to the forefront of trail-blazing research while revealing the damage that overuse of antibiotics is doing to our health: contributing to the rise of obesity, asthma, diabetes, and certain forms of cancer. In Missing Microbes, Dr. Martin Blaser invites us into the wilds of the human microbiome where for hundreds of thousands of years bacterial and human cells have existed in a peaceful symbiosis that is responsible for the health and equilibrium of our body. Now, this invisible eden is being irrevocably damaged by some of our most revered medical advances—antibiotics—threatening the extinction of our irreplaceable microbes with terrible health consequences. Taking us into both the lab and deep into the fields where these troubling effects can be witnessed firsthand, Blaser not only provides cutting edge evidence for the adverse effects of antibiotics, he tells us what we can do to avoid even more catastrophic health problems in the future.

The Oxford Handbook Of Environmental History

Author: Andrew C. Isenberg
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199394474
Size: 43.50 MB
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The field of environmental history emerged just decades ago but has established itself as one of the most innovative and important new approaches to history, one that bridges the human and natural world, the humanities and the sciences. With the current trend towards internationalizing history, environmental history is perhaps the quintessential approach to studying subjects outside the nation-state model, with pollution, global warming, and other issues affecting the earth not stopping at national borders. With 25 essays, this Handbook is global in scope and innovative in organization, looking at the field thematically through such categories as climate, disease, oceans, the body, energy, consumerism, and international relations.

The Oxford Handbook Of Clinical Geropsychology

Author: Nancy A. Pachana
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191029106
Size: 40.91 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Throughout the world, the population of older adults continues to grow. The rise in geriatric populations has seen an increase in research on clinical diagnostic, assessment, and treatment issues aimed at this population. Clinical geropsychologists have increased their interest both in providing mental health services as well as developing approaches to improve quality of life for all older adults. The Oxford Handbook of Clinical Geropsychology is a landmark publication in this field, providing broad and authoritative coverage of the research and practice issues in clinical geropsychology today, as well as innovations expanding the field's horizons. Comprising chapters from the foremost scholars in clinical geropsychology from around the world, the handbook captures the global proliferation of activity in this field. In addition to core sections on topics such as sources of psychological distress, assessment, diagnosis, and intervention, the handbook includes valuable chapters devoted to methodological issues such as longitudinal studies and meta-analyses in the field, as well as new and emerging issues such as technological innovations and social media use in older populations. Each chapter offers a review of the most pertinent international literature, outlining current issues as well as important cultural implications and key practice issues where relevant, and identifying possibilities for future research and policy applications. The book is essential to all psychology researchers, practitioners, educators, and students with an interest in the mental health of older adults. In addition, health professionals - including psychiatrists, social workers, mental health nurses, and trainee geriatric mental heatlh workers - will find this a invaluable resource. Older adults comprise a growing percentage of the population worldwide. Clinical psychologists with an interest in older populations have increased the amount of research and applied knowledge about effectively improving mental health later in life, and this book captures that information on an international level. The book addresses how to diagnose, assess and treat mental illness in older persons, as well as ways to improve quality of life in all older persons. It has a great breadth of coverage of the area, including chapters spanning how research is conducted to how new technologies such as virtual reality and social media are used with older people to improve mental health. The book would appeal to all psychology researchers, practitioners, educators and students with an interest in the mental health of older adults. It would also appeal to other health professionals, including psychiatrists, social workers, and mental health nurses who work with older people. It is a valuable resource for trainee geriatric mental health workers because it highlights key readings and important practice implications in the field.

The Philadelphia Chromosome

Author: Jessica Wapner
Publisher: The Experiment
ISBN: 1615191658
Size: 14.88 MB
Format: PDF
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Philadelphia, 1959: A scientist scrutinizing a single human cell under a microscope detects a missing piece of DNA. That scientist, David Hungerford, had no way of knowing that he had stumbled upon the starting point of modern cancer research— the Philadelphia chromosome. It would take doctors and researchers around the world more than three decades to unravel the implications of this landmark discovery. In 1990, the Philadelphia chromosome was recognized as the sole cause of a deadly blood cancer, chronic myeloid leukemia, or CML. Cancer research would never be the same. Science journalist Jessica Wapner reconstructs more than forty years of crucial breakthroughs, clearly explains the science behind them, and pays tribute—with extensive original reporting, including more than thirty-five interviews—to the dozens of researchers, doctors, and patients with a direct role in this inspirational story. Their curiosity and determination would ultimately lead to a lifesaving treatment unlike anything before it. The Philadelphia Chromosome chronicles the remarkable change of fortune for the more than 70,000 people worldwide who are diagnosed with CML each year. It is a celebration of a rare triumph in the battle against cancer and a blueprint for future research, as doctors and scientists race to uncover and treat the genetic roots of a wide range of cancers.

Pandemics

Author: Peter C. Doherty
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199986789
Size: 10.77 MB
Format: PDF
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Pandemics. The word conjures up images of horrific diseases sweeping the globe and killing everyone in their path. But such highly lethal illnesses almost never create pandemics. The reality is deadly serious but far more subtle. In Pandemics: What Everyone Needs to Know®, Peter Doherty, who won the Nobel Prize for his work on how the immune system recognizes virus-infected cells, offers an essential guide to one of the truly life-or-death issues of our age. In concise, question-and-answer format, he explains the causes of pandemics, how they can be counteracted with vaccines and drugs, and how we can better prepare for them in the future. Doherty notes that the term "pandemic" refers not to a disease's severity but to its ability to spread rapidly over a wide geographical area. Extremely lethal pathogens are usually quickly identified and confined. Nevertheless, the rise of high-speed transportation networks and the globalization of trade and travel have radically accelerated the spread of diseases. A traveler from Africa arrived in New York in 1999 carrying the West Nile virus; one mosquito bite later, it was loose in the ecosystem. Doherty explains how the main threat of a pandemic comes from respiratory viruses, such as influenza and SARS, which disseminate with incredible speed through air travel. The climate disruptions of global warming, rising population density, and growing antibiotic resistance all complicate efforts to control pandemics. But Doherty stresses that pandemics can be fought effectively. Often simple health practices, especially in hospitals, can help enormously. And research into the animal reservoirs of pathogens, from SARS in bats to HIV in chimpanzees, show promise for our prevention efforts. Calm, clear, and authoritative, Peter Doherty's Pandemics is one of the most critically important additions to the What Everyone Needs to Know® series. What Everyone Needs to Know® is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press.

The Pleasures Of Reading A Booklover S Alphabet

Author: Catherine Sheldrick Ross
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1610694333
Size: 59.45 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Based on years of ground-breaking research, this book supplies a look at the unique relationship between each text and the individual reader that results in a satisfying, pleasurable, and even life-changing reading experience. • Supplies succinct, authoritative, and readable accounts on a wide range of genre literature and explains why these types of books appeal to readers • Promotes the librarian's role with readers and helps librarians design readers' advisory services to better serve readers • Offers valuable insights into readers and reading based on reading research • Includes an extensive bibliography and list of relevant titles for further reading • Provides a fascinating read for librarians, educators, and avid readers