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The Calculus Gallery

Author: William Dunham
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691095653
Size: 20.23 MB
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More than three centuries after its creation, calculus remains a dazzling intellectual achievement and the gateway into higher mathematics. This book charts its growth and development by sampling from the work of some of its foremost practitioners, beginning with Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in the late seventeenth century and continuing to Henri Lebesgue at the dawn of the twentieth--mathematicians whose achievements are comparable to those of Bach in music or Shakespeare in literature. William Dunham lucidly presents the definitions, theorems, and proofs. "Students of literature read Shakespeare; students of music listen to Bach," he writes. But this tradition of studying the major works of the "masters" is, if not wholly absent, certainly uncommon in mathematics. This book seeks to redress that situation. Like a great museum, The Calculus Gallery is filled with masterpieces, among which are Bernoulli's early attack upon the harmonic series (1689), Euler's brilliant approximation of pi (1779), Cauchy's classic proof of the fundamental theorem of calculus (1823), Weierstrass's mind-boggling counterexample (1872), and Baire's original "category theorem" (1899). Collectively, these selections document the evolution of calculus from a powerful but logically chaotic subject into one whose foundations are thorough, rigorous, and unflinching--a story of genius triumphing over some of the toughest, most subtle problems imaginable. Anyone who has studied and enjoyed calculus will discover in these pages the sheer excitement each mathematician must have felt when pushing into the unknown. In touring The Calculus Gallery, we can see how it all came to be.

Georg Cantor

Author: Hans Joachim Ilgauds
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3322822257
Size: 29.30 MB
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Geschichte Der Analysis

Author: Hans Niels Jahnke
Publisher: Spektrum Akademischer Verlag
ISBN: 9783827403926
Size: 74.64 MB
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"Geschichte der Analysis" ist von einem internationalen Expertenteam geschrieben und stellt die gegenwärtig umfassendste Darstellung der Herausbildung und Entwicklung dieser mathematischen Kerndisziplin dar. Der tiefgreifende begriffliche Wandel, den die Analysis im Laufe der Zeit durchgemacht hat, wird ebenso dargestellt, wie auch der Einfluß, den vor allem physikalische Probleme gehabt haben. Biographische und philosophische Hintergründe werden ausgeleuchtet und ihre Relevanz für die Theorieentwicklung gezeigt. Neben der eigentlichen Geschichte der Analysis bis ungefähr 1900 enthält das Buch Spezialkapitel über die Entwicklung der analytischen Mechanik im 18. Jahrhundert, Randwertprobleme der mathematischen Physik im 19. Jahrhundert, die Theorie der komplexen Funktionen, die Grundlagenkrise sowie historische Überblicke über die Variationsrechnung, Differentialgleichungen und Funktionalanalysis.

Unglaubliche Zahlen

Author: Ian Stewart
Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH
ISBN: 3644564310
Size: 34.81 MB
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In diesem Buch nimmt der britische Mathe-Guru seine Leser mit auf eine Reise durch das Reich der Zahlen – reelle, rationale, irrationale, komplexe; ganz, ganz kleine und unendlich große, Fraktale, Logarithmen, Hochzahlen, Primzahlen, Kusszahlen und viele mehr. Jedes Kapitel konzentriert sich auf eine Zahl oder Zahlengruppe und erläutert, warum sie so interessant ist. «Jede Zahl hat ihre eigene Geschichte zu erzählen», heißt es im Vorwort. Stewart erzählt sie mit Begeisterung und versteht es geschickt, diese Geschichten miteinander zu verweben, ob es um die Zahl Pi geht oder zum Schluss auch um Geheimcodes, den Rubikwürfel und Sudoku. Darüber hinaus erfährt man viel über die Geschichte der Mathematik und die Rolle, die sie für unsere Entwicklung spielt. Schließlich waren es die Zahlen, so der Autor, «die es der Menschheit ermöglicht haben, sich aus dem Schlamm zu ziehen und nach den Sternen zu greifen».

Mathematische Werke

Author: Karl Weierstrass
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108059139
Size: 52.92 MB
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The German mathematician Karl Weierstrass (1815-97) is generally considered to be the father of modern analysis. His clear eye for what was important is demonstrated by the publication, late in life, of his polynomial approximation theorem; suitably generalised as the Stone-Weierstrass theorem, it became a central tool for twentieth-century analysis. Furthermore, the Weierstrass nowhere-differentiable function is the seed from which springs the entire modern theory of mathematical finance. The best students in Europe came to Berlin to attend his lectures, and his rigorous style still dominates the first analysis course at any university. His seven-volume collected works in the original German contain not only published treatises but also records of many of his famous lecture courses. Volume 1 was published in 1894.

Excursions In The History Of Mathematics

Author: Israel Kleiner
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0817682686
Size: 55.11 MB
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This book comprises five parts. The first three contain ten historical essays on important topics: number theory, calculus/analysis, and proof, respectively. Part four deals with several historically oriented courses, and Part five provides biographies of five mathematicians who played major roles in the historical events described in the first four parts of the work. Excursions in the History of Mathematics was written with several goals in mind: to arouse mathematics teachers’ interest in the history of their subject; to encourage mathematics teachers with at least some knowledge of the history of mathematics to offer courses with a strong historical component; and to provide an historical perspective on a number of basic topics taught in mathematics courses.

Introduction To Real Analysis

Author: William C. Bauldry
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118164431
Size: 18.80 MB
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An accessible introduction to real analysis and its connectionto elementary calculus Bridging the gap between the development and history of realanalysis, Introduction to Real Analysis: An EducationalApproach presents a comprehensive introduction to real analysiswhile also offering a survey of the field. With its balance ofhistorical background, key calculus methods, and hands-onapplications, this book provides readers with a solid foundationand fundamental understanding of real analysis. The book begins with an outline of basic calculus, including aclose examination of problems illustrating links and potentialdifficulties. Next, a fluid introduction to real analysis ispresented, guiding readers through the basic topology of realnumbers, limits, integration, and a series of functions in naturalprogression. The book moves on to analysis with more rigorousinvestigations, and the topology of the line is presented alongwith a discussion of limits and continuity that includes unusualexamples in order to direct readers' thinking beyond intuitivereasoning and on to more complex understanding. The dichotomy ofpointwise and uniform convergence is then addressed and is followedby differentiation and integration. Riemann-Stieltjes integrals andthe Lebesgue measure are also introduced to broaden the presentedperspective. The book concludes with a collection of advancedtopics that are connected to elementary calculus, such as modelingwith logistic functions, numerical quadrature, Fourier series, andspecial functions. Detailed appendices outline key definitions and theorems inelementary calculus and also present additional proofs, projects,and sets in real analysis. Each chapter references historicalsources on real analysis while also providing proof-orientedexercises and examples that facilitate the development ofcomputational skills. In addition, an extensive bibliographyprovides additional resources on the topic. Introduction to Real Analysis: An Educational Approach isan ideal book for upper- undergraduate and graduate-level realanalysis courses in the areas of mathematics and education. It isalso a valuable reference for educators in the field of appliedmathematics.

Limits Limits Everywhere

Author: David Applebaum
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191627879
Size: 49.95 MB
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A quantity can be made smaller and smaller without it ever vanishing. This fact has profound consequences for science, technology, and even the way we think about numbers. In this book, we will explore this idea by moving at an easy pace through an account of elementary real analysis and, in particular, will focus on numbers, sequences, and series. Almost all textbooks on introductory analysis assume some background in calculus. This book doesn't and, instead, the emphasis is on the application of analysis to number theory. The book is split into two parts. Part 1 follows a standard university course on analysis and each chapter closes with a set of exercises. Here, numbers, inequalities, convergence of sequences, and infinite series are all covered. Part 2 contains a selection of more unusual topics that aren't usually found in books of this type. It includes proofs of the irrationality of e and π, continued fractions, an introduction to the Riemann zeta function, Cantor's theory of the infinite, and Dedekind cuts. There is also a survey of what analysis can do for the calculus and a brief history of the subject. A lot of material found in a standard university course on "real analysis" is covered and most of the mathematics is written in standard theorem-proof style. However, more details are given than is usually the case to help readers who find this style daunting. Both set theory and proof by induction are avoided in the interests of making the book accessible to a wider readership, but both of these topics are the subjects of appendices for those who are interested in them. And unlike most university texts at this level, topics that have featured in popular science books, such as the Riemann hypothesis, are introduced here. As a result, this book occupies a unique position between a popular mathematics book and a first year college or university text, and offers a relaxed introduction to a fascinating and important branch of mathematics.

Professor Stewarts Mathematische Sch Tze

Author: Ian Stewart
Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH
ISBN: 3644017115
Size: 16.92 MB
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Was war noch mal die Catalan’sche Vermutung? Und woher kommt eigentlich das Wurzelsymbol? Was hat die Zahl Pi mit dem Sternenhimmel zu tun? Wer erfand das Gleichheitszeichen? Der britische Matheguru Ian Stewart breitet in diesem Band Schätze aus, die er in Jahrzehnten gesammelt hat: über 180 interessante Matherätsel, Lösungen, Spiele, Tricks, Geschichten, Anekdoten und Logeleien. Zudem ist Stewarts Schatztruhe mit interessanten historischen Exkursen angereichert, zum Beispiel einer kurzen Einführung in das Rechnen der Maya und der alten Ägypter und auch in die Vergangenheit unseres eigenen Rechnens: Wer erfand das Gleichheitszeichen – und warum? Ein Buch zum Blättern und Stöbern, zum Spaßhaben und Dazulernen, für Laien und für Fortgeschrittene.