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The Cosmic Century

Author: M. S. Longair
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521474361
Size: 46.52 MB
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Reviews the historical development of all the key areas of modern astrophysics.

Astronomy And Astrophysics Volume I

Author: Oddbjørn Engvold Bozena Czerny, John Lattanzio and Rolf Stabell
Publisher: EOLSS Publications
ISBN: 1780210000
Size: 19.86 MB
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Astronomy is the science of everything – with the exception of the Earth and everything on it and inside. Astronomy has a rich heritage dating back to the myths and legends of antiquity and the course of civilization has been greatly affected by mankind’s interpretation of what they saw in the starry sky and experienced through seasonal changes associated with the Sun and Moon. Early astronomy is associated with the definition of calendars which were needed to predict the dates of such as religious festivals and the numbers of months. A gradual shift of emphasis from astronomy to its sister, astrophysics, which took place through the 19th century, is generally attributed to the measurement of reliable stellar distances and the development of spectroscopy as a tool for understanding the physical nature of stars. Many paradigms in astronomy and its many subfields are continuously being shaken. New insights in the intricacy and elegance of the cosmos are steadily being obtained. Every few decennia, our concepts of the Universe are challenged and substantially modified. The reasons for this are the continuous development of new observing techniques and instruments for observatories both ground-based and in space, in addition to considerable progress in mathematics and physics, including computational ability. Our Universe harbors numerous phenomena and processes representing conditions that cannot be duplicated in terrestrial laboratories. Astronomy therefore frequently leads to fundamentally new insight and knowledge far beyond astronomy itself. Last but not least, it represents a first inspiring introduction to natural science, especially among young people, which is an extra motivation to many scientists to contribute to the Astronomy and Astrophysics Theme of this Encyclopedia. The book on Astronomy and Astrophysics with contributions from distinguished experts in the field, represents a first inspiring introduction to natural science, especially among young people, which is an extra motivation to many scientists to contribute to the Astronomy and Astrophysics Theme of this Encyclopedia. The first chapter which treats the development of astronomy and astrophysics in a historical perspective is followed by an account of the impact of astronomy on human culture and civilization. Observational astronomy is facing a number of environmental challenges. The nature and complexity of these and how the associated problems are met and overcome are described in the third article. Various aspects of our solar system are covered by authoritative articles on the Sun, planets including their satellites and smaller bodies, plus a review of the laws of motions and orbits of celestial bodies. The detection and studies of exo-solar planetary systems is rapidly developing field in astronomy which is treated in a separate chapter. Then follow fascinating up-to-date overviews on stars describing their formation, structure and life cycles. Stars are the building blocks of larger cosmic entities leading to the enigmatic galaxies composed of billions of stars, and gradually to clusters of galaxies. The final chapters cover the origin and evolution of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the Universe, including dark matter and dark energy which are among the most fascinating problems of physics today. These two volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers and NGOs.

The Oxford Handbook Of The History Of Modern Cosmology

Author: Helge Kragh
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192549979
Size: 75.94 MB
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Scientific and popular literature on modern cosmology is very extensive; however, scholarly works on the historical development of cosmology are few and scattered. The Oxford Handbook of the History of Modern Cosmology offers a comprehensive and authoritative account of the history of cosmology from the late nineteenth century to the early twenty-first century. It provides historical background to what we know about the universe today, including not only the successes but also the many false starts. Big Bang theory features prominently, but so does the defunct steady state theory. The book starts with a chapter on the pre-Einstein period (1860-1910) and ends with chapters on modern developments such as inflation, dark energy and multiverse hypotheses. The chapters are organized chronologically, with some focusing on theory and others more on observations and technological advances. A few of the chapters discuss more general ideas, relating to larger contexts such as politics, economy, philosophy and world views.

High Energy Astrophysics

Author: Thierry J.-L. Courvoisier
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642309704
Size: 30.93 MB
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High-energy astrophysics has unveiled a Universe very different from that only known from optical observations. It has revealed many types of objects in which typical variability timescales are as short as years, months, days, and hours (in quasars, X-ray binaries, etc), and even down to milli-seconds in gamma ray bursts. The sources of energy that are encountered are only very seldom nuclear fusion, and most of the time gravitation, a paradox when one thinks that gravitation is, by many orders of magnitude, the weakest of the fundamental interactions. The understanding of these objects' physical conditions and the processes revealed by high-energy astrophysics in the last decades is nowadays part of astrophysicists' culture, even of those active in other domains of astronomy. This book evolved from lectures given to master and PhD students at the University of Geneva since the early 1990s. It aims at providing astronomers and physicists intending to be active in high-energy astrophysics a broad basis on which they should be able to build the more specific knowledge they will need. While in the first part of the book the physical processes are described and derived in detail, the second part studies astrophysical objects in which high-energy astrophysics processes are crucial. This two-pronged approach will help students recognise physical processes by their observational signatures in contexts that may differ widely from those presented here.

High Energy Astrophysics

Author: Malcolm S. Longair
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139494546
Size: 55.92 MB
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Providing students with an in-depth account of the astrophysics of high energy phenomena in the Universe, the third edition of this well-established textbook is ideal for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate courses in high energy astrophysics. Building on the concepts and techniques taught in standard undergraduate courses, this textbook provides the astronomical and astrophysical background for students to explore more advanced topics. Special emphasis is given to the underlying physical principles of high energy astrophysics, helping students understand the essential physics. The third edition has been completely rewritten, consolidating the previous editions into one volume. It covers the most recent discoveries in areas such as gamma-ray bursts, ultra-high energy cosmic rays and ultra-high energy gamma rays. The topics have been rearranged and streamlined to make them more applicable to a wide range of different astrophysical problems.

Galaxy Formation

Author: Malcolm Longair
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540734775
Size: 21.15 MB
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Delineating the huge strides taken in cosmology in the past ten years, this much-anticipated second edition of Malcolm Longair's highly appreciated textbook has been extensively and thoroughly updated. It tells the story of modern astrophysical cosmology from the perspective of one of its most important and fundamental problems – how did the galaxies come about? Longair uses this approach to introduce the whole of what may be called "classical cosmology". What’s more, he describes how the study of the origin of galaxies and larger-scale structures in the Universe has provided us with direct information about the physics of the very early Universe.

Quantum Concepts In Physics

Author: Malcolm Longair
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107017092
Size: 45.96 MB
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Innovative account of the origins of quantum mechanics told from a historical perspective, for advanced undergraduates, graduate students and researchers.

High Energy Astrophysics

Author: Malcolm S. Longair
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 42.67 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Providing students with an in-depth account of the astrophysics of high energy phenomena in the Universe, the third edition of this well-established textbook is ideal for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate courses in high energy astrophysics. This new edition has been completely rewritten, consolidating the previous editions into one volume. It covers the most recent discoveries in areas such as gamma-ray bursts, ultra-high energy cosmic rays and ultra-high energy gamma rays. The topics have been rearranged and streamlined to make them more applicable to a wide range of different astrophysical problems. Building on the concepts and techniques taught in standard undergraduate courses, this textbook provides the astronomical and astrophysical background for students to explore more advanced topics. Special emphasis is given to the underlying physical principles of high energy astrophysics, helping students to understand the essential physics. "The third edition of High Energy Astrophysics is a remarkable gem. It is written in the clear, lucid style that characterises Professor Longair's monographs and displays an admirable balance between breadth and depth. It would serve equally well as a textbook for a graduate-level course or a reference work for the practicing astrophysicist." Bradley M. Peterson, Professor and Chair of Astronomy, The Ohio State University "This is a great book for students and researchers alike. It is up to date and covers the exciting new developments in high energy astrophysics. It will be on my shelf at arm's reach." Dr Neil Gehrels, Chief, Astroparticle Physics Laboratory, NASA/GSFC "The text conveys the excitement of the progress being made in both observational and computational astronomy and ably describes the physical processes involved before educating the reader on a comprehensive list of frontier research topics. The new edition is an essential purchase for all physicists and astronomers." Richard Ellis, Steele Professor of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology "The book is really a treasure for any student or teacher interested in astrophysics. It is very up to date and synoptically covers the whole field of high energy astrophysics. I will use the book for my lectures as soon as I can!" Gunther Hasinger, Scientific Director, Max-Planck-Institut for Plasmaphysik

Cosmos

Author: John North
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226594416
Size: 23.10 MB
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The definitive history of humanity's search to find its place within the universe. North charts the history of astronomy and cosmology from the Paleolithic period to the present day.