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The Loss Of Sadness

Author: Allan V. Horwitz
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198042693
Size: 57.64 MB
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Depression has become the single most commonly treated mental disorder, amid claims that one out of ten Americans suffer from this disorder every year and 25% succumb at some point in their lives. Warnings that depressive disorder is a leading cause of worldwide disability have been accompanied by a massive upsurge in the consumption of antidepressant medication, widespread screening for depression in clinics and schools, and a push to diagnose depression early, on the basis of just a few symptoms, in order to prevent more severe conditions from developing. In The Loss of Sadness, Allan V. Horwitz and Jerome C. Wakefield argue that, while depressive disorder certainly exists and can be a devastating condition warranting medical attention, the apparent epidemic in fact reflects the way the psychiatric profession has understood and reclassified normal human sadness as largely an abnormal experience. With the 1980 publication of the landmark third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III), mental health professionals began diagnosing depression based on symptoms--such as depressed mood, loss of appetite, and fatigue--that lasted for at least two weeks. This system is fundamentally flawed, the authors maintain, because it fails to take into account the context in which the symptoms occur. They stress the importance of distinguishing between abnormal reactions due to internal dysfunction and normal sadness brought on by external circumstances. Under the current DSM classification system, however, this distinction is impossible to make, so the expected emotional distress caused by upsetting events-for example, the loss of a job or the end of a relationship- could lead to a mistaken diagnosis of depressive disorder. Indeed, it is this very mistake that lies at the root of the presumed epidemic of major depression in our midst. In telling the story behind this phenomenon, the authors draw on the 2,500-year history of writing about depression, including studies in both the medical and social sciences, to demonstrate why the DSM's diagnosis is so flawed. They also explore why it has achieved almost unshakable currency despite its limitations. Framed within an evolutionary account of human health and disease, The Loss of Sadness presents a fascinating dissection of depression as both a normal and disordered human emotion and a sweeping critique of current psychiatric diagnostic practices. The result is a potent challenge to the diagnostic revolution that began almost thirty years ago in psychiatry and a provocative analysis of one of the most significant mental health issues today.

All We Have To Fear

Author: Allan V. Horwitz, PhD
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199978867
Size: 58.88 MB
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Thirty years ago, it was estimated that less than five percent of the population had an anxiety disorder. Today, some estimates are over fifty percent, a tenfold increase. Is this dramatic rise evidence of a real medical epidemic? In All We Have to Fear, Allan Horwitz and Jerome Wakefield argue that psychiatry itself has largely generated this "epidemic" by inflating many natural fears into psychiatric disorders, leading to the over-diagnosis of anxiety disorders and the over-prescription of anxiety-reducing drugs. American psychiatry currently identifies disordered anxiety as irrational anxiety disproportionate to a real threat. Horwitz and Wakefield argue, to the contrary, that it can be a perfectly normal part of our nature to fear things that are not at all dangerous--from heights to negative judgments by others to scenes that remind us of past threats (as in some forms of PTSD). Indeed, this book argues strongly against the tendency to call any distressing condition a "mental disorder." To counter this trend, the authors provide an innovative and nuanced way to distinguish between anxiety conditions that are psychiatric disorders and likely require medical treatment and those that are not--the latter including anxieties that seem irrational but are the natural products of evolution. The authors show that many commonly diagnosed "irrational" fears--such as a fear of snakes, strangers, or social evaluation--have evolved over time in response to situations that posed serious risks to humans in the past, but are no longer dangerous today. Drawing on a wide range of disciplines including psychiatry, evolutionary psychology, sociology, anthropology, and history, the book illuminates the nature of anxiety in America, making a major contribution to our understanding of mental health.

Peddling Mental Disorder

Author: Lawrie Reznek
Publisher: McFarland
ISBN: 1476622728
Size: 47.15 MB
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Psychiatry is a mess. Patients who urgently need help go untreated, while perfectly healthy people are over-diagnosed with serious mental disorders and receive unnecessary medical treatment. The roots of the problem are the vast pharmaceutical industry profits and a diagnostic system—the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)—vulnerable to exploitation. Drug companies have fostered the development of this system, pushing psychiatry to over-extend its domain so that more people can be diagnosed with mental disorders and treated with drugs. This book describes the steady expansion of the DSM—both the manual itself and its application—and the resulting over-medication of society. The author discusses revisions and additions to the DSM (now in its fifth edition) that have only deepened the epidemics of major depression, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, social anxiety disorder, attention deficit disorder and bipolar disorder.

Hidden Courage

Author: William J. Elenchin
Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers
ISBN: 160608111X
Size: 26.57 MB
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Most consumers of mental health services assume that psychology developed as a bias-free social science, with research data driving theory and practice. This view is greatly flawed, as virtually all of the key theorists advanced their views based primarily on observations, personal insights, and beliefs. These thinkers held a hostile view of faith, dismissing religious values as a sign of mental illness. While psychotherapy literally means care of the soul, mental health treatment largely excludes matters of the heart such as moral fiber and spirit. Lost has been the idea that virtues such as courage and hope play an intensely vital role in mental wellness. More troubling is the fact that most recipients of psychological services assume that mental health professionals, because of their training, possess sophisticated insights only they can dispense to relieve mental distress. Because the majority of mental health treatment has historically functioned from an illness model, both treatment providers and consumers have deemed faith beliefs and character strengths irrelevant to good mental health. Fortunately, the last twenty years of scientific research has reestablished the positive relationship between faith beliefs, character traits, and behavioral health that has been held sacrosanct throughout virtually all of human history. Through a distillation of these findings, Hidden Courage seeks to empower nonprofessionals with accessible, timeless principles that guide a good life.

Philosophical Issues In Psychiatry Iii

Author: Kenneth S. Kendler
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191038865
Size: 58.96 MB
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Psychiatry has long struggled with the nature of its diagnoses. The problems raised by questions about the nature of psychiatric illness are particularly fascinating because they sit at the intersection of philosophy, empirical psychiatric/psychological research, measurement theory, historical tradition and policy. In being the only medical specialty that diagnoses and treats mental illness, psychiatry has been subject to major changes in the last 150 years. This book explores the forces that have shaped these changes and especially how substantial "internal" advances in our knowledge of the nature and causes of psychiatric illness have interacted with a plethora of external forces that have impacted on the psychiatric profession. It includes contributions from philosophers of science with an interest in psychiatry, psychiatrists and psychologists with expertise in the history of their field and historians of psychiatry. Each chapter is accompanied by an introduction and a commentary. The result is a dynamic discussion about the nature of psychiatric disorders, and a book that is compelling reading for those in the field of mental health, history of science and medicine, and philosophy.

Free From Addiction

Author: Morteza Khaleghi, PhD
Publisher: St. Martin's Press
ISBN: 9780230615427
Size: 26.18 MB
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Addiction invades every region and demographic in the United States, affecting more than 23 million Americans and putting families though a heartbreaking cycle of recovery and relapse. Many people give up and never find the right treatment that will enable them to break free of their addiction forever. Offering a radical new approach, clinical psychologist Dr. Morteza Khaleghi argues that the vast majority of drug and alcohol addiction is driven by an emotional trauma. A pioneer of the dual diagnosis recovery program, he treats the body for chemical dependency while simultaneously ministering to the emotional block that serves as a trigger for relapse. A regular advisor on the Dr. Phil show, Dr. Khaleghi has mapped out recovery plans for thousands of patients and their families. Well-known facilities such as Hazelden, Sierra Tucson, and the Betty Ford Center refer their toughest cases to him, looking to his vast experience and high rate of success. In this groundbreaking book, he teaches you the methods that have made him the therapist that other therapists turn to for advice. Families will learn how to • Recognize addictive behavior • Plan and stage effective interventions • Work on the family dynamics that enable addiction Patients will learn to • Become self aware about addictive behavior • Identify the emotional trauma that is at the heart of nearly every addiction • Detect early signs of relapse and take preemptive measures Drawing on over 20 years of experience healing patients, Dr. Khaleghi's insightful, nurturing and-- above all--breakthrough book is geared to anyone looking for help with dependency and to the spouses, parents, children, and friends who bear the brunt of this damaging disease. Free from Addiction will redefine addiction treatment and provide new hope to all those embarking on recovery.

Reshaping Theory In Contemporary Social Work

Author: William Borden
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231519338
Size: 43.54 MB
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William Borden's persuasive collection of original essays reaffirms the place of theory in social work practice, showing how different theoretical models, therapeutic languages, and modes of intervention strengthen eclectic and integrative approaches to psychosocial intervention. A distinguished group of scholars and practitioners examine emerging developments in cognitive theory, psychodynamic thought, resilience research and family therapy, psychobiography and narrative perspectives, and conceptions of place and environment in psychosocial intervention. They introduce integrative frameworks for intervention and examine a series of crucial issues in the field, including the role of theory in evidence-based practice, the development of practice wisdom, and the ways in which conceptions of love, acceptance, and social justice influence theorizing and practice. The contributors to this volume, each one carefully selected, reaffirm the framing perspectives and core values of the social work profession and identify fundamental challenges and tasks in developing theory and practice. Exploring contemporary yet no less essential concerns, they reflect the richness and creativity of theorizing in our time.

Clinician S Guide To Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Author: Gerald M. Rosen
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470646922
Size: 11.89 MB
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Praise for Clinician's Guide to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder "Rosen and Frueh's important book takes a huge leap toward clarity. The chapters are authored by leading experts in the field, and each addresses one of the pressing issues of the day. The tone is sensible and authoritative throughout, but always with a thoughtful ear toward clinical concerns and implications." —George A. Bonanno, PhD Professor of Clinical Psychology Teachers College, Columbia University "All clinicians and researchers dealing with anxiety disorders should have a copy of Rosen and Frueh's Clinician's Guide to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder on their shelves. Moreover, they should read it from cover to cover. This compilation . . . is authoritative, very readable, and extremely well crafted. The issues are looked at from many vantage points, including assessment and treatment, cross-cultural, cognitive, and categorical/political." —Michel Hersen, PhD, ABPP Editor, Journal of Anxiety Disorders Dean, School of Professional Psychology, Pacific University Clinician's Guide to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder brings together an international group of expert clinicians and researchers who address core issues facing mental health professionals, including: Assessing and treating trauma exposure and posttraumatic morbidity Controversies and clinical implications of differences of opinion among researchers on the definition and diagnosis of the condition Treating the full range of posttraumatic reactions Cross-cultural perspectives on posttraumatic stress

The Disordered Mind

Author: George Graham
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135088845
Size: 14.37 MB
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The Disordered Mind: An Introduction to Philosophy of Mind and Mental Illness, second edition examines and explains, from a philosophical standpoint, what mental disorder is: its reality, causes, consequences, and more. It is also an outstanding introduction to philosophy of mind from the perspective of mental disorder. Revised and updated throughout, this second edition includes new discussions of grief and psychopathy, the problems of the psychophysical basis of disorder, the nature of selfhood, and clarification of the relation between rationality and mental disorder. Each chapter explores a central question or problem about mental disorder, including: what is mental disorder and can it be distinguished from neurological disorder? what roles should reference to psychological, cultural, and social factors play in the medical/scientific understanding of mental disorder? what makes mental disorders undesirable? Are they diseases? mental disorder and the mind–body problem is mental disorder a breakdown of rationality? What is a rational mind? addiction, responsibility and compulsion ethical dilemmas posed by mental disorder, including questions of dignity and self-respect. Each topic is clearly explained and placed in a clinical and philosophical context. Mental disorders discussed include clinical depression, dissociative identity disorder, anxiety, religious delusions, and paranoia. Several non-mental neurological disorders that possess psychological symptoms are also examined, including Alzheimer’s disease, Down’s syndrome, and Tourette’s syndrome. Containing chapter summaries and suggestions for further reading at the end of each chapter, The Disordered Mind, second edition is a superb introduction to the philosophy of mental disorder for students of philosophy, psychology, psychiatry, and related mental health professions.

The Inner Life Of The Dying Person

Author: Allan Kellehear
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231536933
Size: 31.19 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This unique book recounts the experience of facing one's death solely from the dying person's point of view rather than from the perspective of caregivers, survivors, or rescuers. Such unmediated access challenges assumptions about the emotional and spiritual dimensions of dying, showing readers that—along with suffering, loss, anger, sadness, and fear—we can also feel courage, love, hope, reminiscence, transcendence, transformation, and even happiness as we die. A work that is at once psychological, sociological, and philosophical, this book brings together testimonies of those dying from terminal illness, old age, sudden injury or trauma, acts of war, and the consequences of natural disasters and terrorism. It also includes statements from individuals who are on death row, in death camps, or planning suicide. Each form of dying addressed highlights an important set of emotions and narratives that often eclipses stereotypical renderings of dying and reflects the numerous contexts in which this journey can occur outside of hospitals, nursing homes, and hospices. Chapters focus on common emotional themes linked to dying, expanding and challenging them through first-person accounts and analyses of relevant academic and clinical literature in psycho-oncology, palliative care, gerontology, military history, anthropology, sociology, cultural and religious studies, poetry, and fiction. The result is an all-encompassing investigation into an experience that will eventually include us all and is more surprising and profound than anyone can imagine.