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The Sea Floor

Author: Eugen Seibold
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662033178
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Man's understanding of how this planet is put together and how it evolved has changed radically during the last 30 years. This great revolution in geology - now usually subsumed under the concept of Plate Tectonics - brought the realization that convection within the Earth is responsible for the origin of today's ocean basins and conti nents, and that the grand features of the Earth's surface are the product of ongoing large-scale horizontal motions. Some of these notions were put forward earlier in this century (by A. Wegener, in 1912, and by A. Holmes, in 1929), but most of the new ideas were an outgrowth of the study of the ocean floor after World War II. In its impact on the earth sciences, the plate tectonics revolution is comparable to the upheaval wrought by the ideas of Charles Darwin (1809-1882), which started the intense discussion on the evolution of the biosphere that has recently heated up again. Darwin drew his inspiration from observations on island life made during the voyage of the Beagle (1831-1836), and his work gave strong impetus to the first global oceanographic expedition, the voyage of HMS Challenger (1872- 1876). Ever since, oceanographic research has been intimately associ ated with fundamental advances in the knowledge of Earth. This should come as no surprise. After all, our planet's surface is mostly ocean.

An Introduction To Marine Geology

Author: M. J. Keen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483293491
Size: 68.18 MB
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An account of some aspects of marine geology and marine geophysics, comprehensible to those at an early stage in their study of geology and to scientists who are not specialists in these fields. There are many biologists, chemists, mathematicians or physicists who work in the laboratory or on board ship with geologists and geophysicists and this book will help them to understand the aims of their colleages' experiments. Wherever possible, without a loss of necessary precision, terminology is deliberately simplified.

Marine Geology

Author: H. Kuenen
Publisher: Baltzell Press
ISBN: 1443725102
Size: 40.33 MB
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Marine Geology PROFESSOR OF GEOIOGY Ph. H. KUENEN UNIVERSITY OF GRONINGEN THE NETHERLANDS 1950 JOHN WILEY SONS, INC., NEW YORK CHAPMAN HALL, LIMITED, LONDON Copyright, 1950, by John Wiley Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. This book or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America To B. G. ESCHER, Professor of Geology University of Leyden Inspiring teacher and generous friend Who first directed the writers interest towards the problems of marine geology by insuring his appointment as geologist to the Sne l us Expedition Preface The geologists of the past have not always developed their science systematically. The geology of the seas has been especially neglected, but with good reason. Most geological subjects are readily accessible, or relatively so, as respects time and money. The examination of the sea floor, however, means expensive and lengthy cruises as well as intricate techniques of investigation. Only recently have an increas ing number of individual workers, oil companies, and oceanographical institutions embarked on a more intensive study of marine geology. This neglect still prevails in teaching in spite of the fact that most undergraduates will later spend a major portion of their time dealing with fossil marine sediments in one way or another. As long as marine geology remained undeveloped, this lack of emphasis could be fully justified. However, now that great advances in this subject have been made there would seem to be ample reason for giving more attention to the geological problems of the sea. To this end, three purposes have been in mind while this book was being written. Thefirst was to introduce university students of ge ology to an important branch of their subject. The second, to pro vide a guide for geologists, oceanographers, and scientists in general who wish to explore the field of marine geology, and, finally, to aid the advance of research by summarizing achieved results and empha sizing the many problems still to be solved. It should be realized that this is not intended as a source book for data, but references, although not complete, will point the way to whatever detailed information the reader may require. Throughout, emphasis has been laid on problems in the hope of stimulating the students interest and his critical faculties. I am well aware, however, that this approach may have led me to make sweep ing statements and to emphasize some subjects beyond their general significance, while neglecting others. Some subjects, such as geo physics of the sea floor, geomorphology of coastlines, descriptive petrography of recent marine sediments, and the analysis of fossil rock facies, have purposely been touched on only superficially. On vii viii PREFACE the other hand I have given special attention to coral reefs, submarine canyons, and the Moluccan deep-sea troughs, having spent much time myself on these subjects. The present volume differs markedly from other recent textbooks dealing with marine geology. Dalys The Floor of the Ocean is mainly geophysical Bourcarts Geographie du fond des mers, geo graphical The Oceans by Sverdrup et al., oceanographical. Shep ards excellent Submarine Geology emphasizes geomorphological mat ters and field techniques, and there is surprisingly little duplication in our texts. Not until well along with the writing didI realize how wide and diversified is the field of marine geology. Had it not been for the generous assistance offered by several colleagues this book would never have been brought to completion. Foremost among these are C. O. Dunbar, who read the whole of the original manuscript, and F. P. Shepard, who read most of it. Both suggested a very substantial number of corrections and alterations. Others who read some chap ters and gave valuable advice are P. Groen, D. L. Inman, A. N. Jeffares, Gerda A. Neeb, L. M. J. U. v. Straaten, and J. H. F. Umb grove...

Marine Geology

Author: James P. Kennett
Publisher: Prentice Hall
ISBN:
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Junior, Senior, Graduate level text for Marine Geology, Marine Stratigraphy and Sedimentology or plate tectonics. Course found in both Geology and Oceanography departments. The first comprehensive and entirely new volume on marine geology since the emergence of the plate tectonic revolution in earth sciences and deep-sea drilling. Written by a foremost authority in the field.

Life On Earth A G

Author: Niles Eldredge
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 157607286X
Size: 13.72 MB
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An examination of nature's extraordinary biological diversity and the human activities that threaten it. * 200+ A–Z detailed entries on Earth's ecosystems, major groups of organisms, threats to biodiversity, and academic disciplines related to the study of biodiversity * Contributions from 50 recognized authorities from the fields of anthropology, biology, botany, earth science, ecology, evolution, and more * 150 photographs of key people, animals, and organisms; line drawings; tables, charts, and graphs including the major families of birds, the effects of agricultural intensity on biodiversity, and the number of years needed to add each billion to the world's population * Four major overview essays explaining what biodiversity is, why it is important, how it is threatened, and the Sixth Global Extinction

Hydrothermal Mineral Deposits

Author: Franco Pirajno
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642756719
Size: 51.74 MB
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This book is intended primarily for exploration geologists and post graduate students attending specialist courses in mineral exploration. Exploration geologists are engaged not only in the search for new mineral deposits, but also in the extension and re-assessment of existing ones. To succeed in these tasks, the exploration geologist is required to be a "generalist" of the Earth sciences rather than a specialist. The exploration geologist needs to be familiar with most aspects of the geology of ore deposits, and detailed knowledge as well as experience play an all important role in the successful exploration for mineral commodities. In order to achieve this, it is essential that the exploration geologist be up to date with the latest developments in the evolution of concepts and ideas in the Earth sciences. This is no easy task, as thousands of publications appear every year in an ever increasing number of journals, periodicals and books. For this reason it is also difficult, at times, to locate appropriate references on a particular mineral deposit type, although this problem is alleviated by the existence of large bibliographic data bases of geological records, abstracts and papers on computers. During my teaching to explorationists and, indeed, during my years of work as an explorationist, the necessity of having a text dealing with the fundamental aspects of hydrothermal mineral deposits has always been compelling. Metallic mineral deposits can be categorised into three great families, namely: (I) magmatic; (2) sedimentary and residual; (3) hydrothermal.

Marine Geology Of Korean Seas

Author: Sung Kwun Chough
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080535821
Size: 64.81 MB
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Tremendous progress has been made in the geological understanding of the Korean seas with the advances in sophisticated exploration techniques, specifically in the areas of marine geophysics, sedimentology, geochemistry, and palaeoceanography, since Marine Geology of Korean Seas was first published in 1983. This book gives a comprehensive overview of the marine geology of these unique seas, including physiography, sedimentary facies and depositional processes of surface sediments, sequence stratigraphy, geologic structures, and basin evolution. In this edition, new results and interpretations have been incorporated that help to formulate geological models on the evolution of the Korean seas in relation to the adjacent continents.

Marine Geological Surveying And Sampling

Author: E.A. Hailwood
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400906153
Size: 59.92 MB
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This collection of papers originates from a meeting are in current use on board UK research vessels. organized in May 1988 at the Geological Society, Marine geological exploration requires information under three further headings: (i) the "shape" of the London, under the auspices of its Marine Studies Group. The meeting was concerned with reviewing sea floor, (ii) the nature of the rocks and sediments the present state-of-the-art of marine geological and which lie at its surface, and (iii) the nature of deeper geophysical sampling and surveying techniques. structures. Studies of the shape of the sea floor The pace of scientific exploration of the ocean (bathymetry) are based primarily on echo sounder basins has increased dramatically over the past few and side-scan sonar surveying. Technology in this decades in response to interest in the global tectonic field has seen major advances over the past two processes which control their long-term evolution decades, with the development of new ceramic ma and the regional and local sedimentary and tectonic terials to provide more efficient and powerful trans ducers, the increasing use of digital data processing processes which shape them, as well as more practi cal questions such as the nature and extent of off techniques to improve the quality of the signal from shore mineral resources, problems of waste disposal the sea floor, and the introduction of new design at sea and the response of sea level to global climatic concepts to provide higher resolution records.

Marine Environmental Biology And Conservation

Author: Daniel Beckman
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Publishers
ISBN: 0763773506
Size: 38.49 MB
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"Written for the upper-level undergraduate or graduate-level course, Marine Environmental Biology and Conservation provides an introduction to the environmental and anthropogenic threats facing the world's oceans and outlines the steps that can and should be taken to protect these vital habitats"--

Antarctic Marine Geology

Author: J. B. Anderson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521593175
Size: 29.81 MB
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A comprehensive single-authored book to introduce students and researchers to the marine geology of the Antarctic.