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The Species Problem

Author: Richard A. Richards
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139488295
Size: 33.23 MB
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There is long-standing disagreement among systematists about how to divide biodiversity into species. Over twenty different species concepts are used to group organisms, according to criteria as diverse as morphological or molecular similarity, interbreeding and genealogical relationships. This, combined with the implications of evolutionary biology, raises the worry that either there is no single kind of species, or that species are not real. This book surveys the history of thinking about species from Aristotle to modern systematics in order to understand the origin of the problem, and advocates a solution based on the idea of the division of conceptual labor, whereby species concepts function in different ways - theoretically and operationally. It also considers related topics such as individuality and the metaphysics of evolution, and how scientific terms get their meaning. This important addition to the current debate will be essential for philosophers and historians of science, and for biologists.

The Philosophy Of Biology

Author: Kostas Kampourakis
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400765371
Size: 57.21 MB
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This book brings together for the first time philosophers of biology to write about some of the most central concepts and issues in their field from the perspective of biology education. The chapters of the book cover a variety of topics ranging from traditional ones, such as biological explanation, biology and religion or biology and ethics, to contemporary ones, such as genomics, systems biology or evolutionary developmental biology. Each of the 30 chapters covers the respective philosophical literature in detail and makes specific suggestions for biology education. The aim of this book is to inform biology educators, undergraduate and graduate students in biology and related fields, students in teacher training programs, and curriculum developers about the current state of discussion on the major topics in the philosophy of biology and its implications for teaching biology. In addition, the book can be valuable to philosophers of biology as an introductory text in undergraduate and graduate courses.

From Assessing To Conserving Biodiversity

Author: Elena Casetta
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3030109917
Size: 42.20 MB
Format: PDF
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This open access book features essays written by philosophers, biologists, ecologists and conservation scientists facing the current biodiversity crisis. Despite increasing communication, accelerating policy and management responses, and notwithstanding improving ecosystem assessment and endangered species knowledge, conserving biodiversity continues to be more a concern than an accomplished task. Why is it so? The overexploitation of natural resources by our species is a frequently recognised factor, while the short-term economic interests of governments and stakeholders typically clash with the burdens that implementing conservation actions imply. But this is not the whole story. This book develops a different perspective on the problem by exploring the conceptual challenges and practical defiance posed by conserving biodiversity, namely: on the one hand, the difficulties in defining what biodiversity is and characterizing that "thing" to which the word 'biodiversity refers to; on the other hand, the reasons why assessing biodiversity and putting in place effective conservation actions is arduous.

Non Native Species And Their Role In The Environment

Author: Radu Cornel Guiaşu
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9047426134
Size: 43.35 MB
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The role of non-native species in their new environments is one of the central issues in conservation biology and ecology today. This book presents a comprehensive evolutionary exploration of the complex and dynamic interactions between introduced species and native ones, and shows that non-native species can bring useful and important contributions to novel ecosystems. Based on a wide variety of examples and case studies, a strong case is made for a more positive and objective approach to non-native species and a greater appreciation of the valuable ecosystem services they provide.

The Species Problem

Author: Igor Pavlinov
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 953510957X
Size: 55.52 MB
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The book includes collection of theoretical papers dealing with the species problem, which is among most fundamental issues in biology. The principal topics are: consideration of the species problem from the standpoint of modern non-classical science paradigm, with emphasis on its conceptual status presuming its analysis within certain conceptual framework; evolutionary emergence of the species as discrete unit of certain level of generality; epistemological consideration of the species as a particular explanatory hypotheses, with respective revised concepts of biodiversity and conservation; considerations of evolutionary and phylogenomic species concepts as candidates for the universal one; re-appraisal of the biological species concept based on the "friend-foe" recognition system; species delimitation approach using multi-locus coalescent-based method; a re-consideration of the Darwin's species concept.

Biological Individuality

Author: Jack Wilson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521624251
Size: 68.45 MB
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"This is a book of interest to philosophers of biology, metaphysicians, and biologists."--BOOK JACKET.

Science Politics And Evolution

Author: Elisabeth A. Lloyd
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139469959
Size: 68.34 MB
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This book brings together important essays by one of the leading philosophers of science at work today. Elisabeth A. Lloyd examines several of the central topics in philosophy of biology, including the structure of evolutionary theory, units of selection, and evolutionary psychology, as well as the Science Wars, feminism and science, and sexuality and objectivity. Lloyd challenges the current evolutionary accounts of the female orgasm and analyses them for bias. She also offers an innovative analysis of the concept of objectivity. Lloyd analyses the structure of evolutionary theory and unlocks the puzzle of the units of selection debates into four distinct aspects, illuminating several mysteries in the biology literature. Central to all essays in this book is the author's abiding concern for evidence and empirical data.

Scientific Enquiry And Natural Kinds

Author: P. Magnus
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137271256
Size: 63.95 MB
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Some scientific categories seem to correspond to genuine features of the world and are indispensable for successful science in some domain; in short, they are natural kinds . This book gives a general account of what it is to be a natural kind and puts the account to work illuminating numerous specific examples.

A Companion To The Philosophy Of Biology

Author: Sahotra Sarkar
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
ISBN:
Size: 48.42 MB
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Comprised of essays by top scholars in the field, this volume offers detailed overviews of philosophical issues raised by biology. Brings together a team of eminent scholars to explore the philosophical issues raised by biology Addresses traditional and emerging topics, spanning molecular biology and genetics, evolution, developmental biology, immunology, ecology, mind and behaviour, neuroscience, and experimentation Begins with a thorough introduction to the field Goes beyond previous treatments that focused only on evolution to give equal attention to other areas, such as molecular and developmental biology Represents both an authoritative guide to philosophy of biology, and an accessible reference work for anyone seeking to learn about this rapidly-changing field

Biodiversity And Environmental Philosophy

Author: Sahotra Sarkar
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139446693
Size: 17.85 MB
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This book explores the epistemological and ethical issues at the foundations of environmental philosophy, emphasising the conservation of biodiversity. Sahota Sarkar criticises attempts to attribute intrinsic value to nature and defends an anthropocentric position on biodiversity conservation based on an untraditional concept of transformative value. Unlike other studies in the field of environmental philosophy, this book is as much concerned with epistemological issues as with environmental ethics. It covers a broad range of topics, including problems of explanation and prediction in traditional ecology and how individual-based models and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology is transforming ecology. Introducing a brief history of conservation biology, Sarkar analyses the consensus framework for conservation planning through adaptive management. He concludes with a discussion of directions for theoretical research in conservation biology and environmental philosophy.