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The War Crime Of Child Soldier Recruitment

Author: Julie McBride
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9067049212
Size: 54.44 MB
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The practice of using children to participate in conflict has become a defining characteristic of 21st century warfare and is the most recent addition to the canon of international war crimes. This text examines the development of this crime of recruiting, conscripting or using children for participation in armed conflict, from human rights principle to fully fledged war crime, prosecuted at the International Criminal Court. The background and reasons for the growing use of children in armed conflict are analysed, before discussing the origins of the crime in international humanitarian law and human rights law treaties, including the Convention on the Rights of the Child and its Optional Protocol. Specific focus is paid to the jurisprudence of the Special Court for Sierra Leone and the International Criminal Court in developing and expanding the elements of the crime, the modes of ascribing liability to perpetrators and the defences of mistake and negligence. The question of how the courts addressed issues of cultural sensitivity, notably in terms of the liability of children, is also addressed.

Child Soldiers In The Age Of Fractured States

Author: Scott Gates
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Press
ISBN: 0822973596
Size: 40.63 MB
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Current global estimates of children engaged in warfare range from 200,000 to 300,000. Children's roles in conflict range from armed and active participants to spies, cooks, messengers, and sex slaves. Child Soldiers in the Age of Fractured States examines the factors that contribute to the use of children in war, the effects of war upon children, and the perpetual cycle of warfare that engulfs many of the world's poorest nations. The contributors seek to eliminate myths of historic or culture-based violence, and instead look to common traits of chronic poverty and vulnerable populations. Individual essays examine topics such as: the legal and ethical aspects of child soldiering; internal UN debates over enforcement of child protection policies; economic factors; increased access to small arms; displaced populations; resource endowments; forced government conscription; rebel-enforced quota systems; motivational techniques employed in recruiting children; and the role of girls in conflict. The contributors also offer viable policies to reduce the recruitment of child soldiers such as the protection of refugee camps by outside forces, “naming and shaming,” and criminal prosecution by international tribunals. Finally, they focus on ways to reintegrate former child soldiers into civil society in the aftermath of war.

Child Soldiers

Author: David M. Rosen
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1598845268
Size: 32.49 MB
Format: PDF
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This book exposes the role of children in war, describing where, why, and how children are deployed, the attempts made by international organizations to protect children, and the underlying political and cultural issues that make this such a thorny issue. * A chronology of major events in the efforts to limit the use of child soldiers * Biographical sketches of famous child soldiers and key figures in the effort to ban the use of child soldiers * A directory of organizations involved in the child soldier issue

Child Soldiers As Agents Of War And Peace

Author: Leonie Steinl
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9462652015
Size: 39.65 MB
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This book deals with child soldiers’ involvement in crimes under international law. Child soldiers are often victims of grave human rights abuses, and yet, in some cases, they also participate actively in inflicting violence upon others. Nonetheless, the international discourse on child soldiers often tends to ignore the latter dimension of children’s involvement in armed conflict and instead focuses exclusively on their role as victims. While it might seem as though the discourse is therefore beneficial for child soldiers as it protects them from blame and responsibility, it is important to realize that the so-called passive victim narrative entails various adverse consequences, which can hinder the successful reintegration of child soldiers into their families, communities and societies. This book aims to address this dilemma. First, the available options for dealing with child soldiers’ participation in crimes under international law, such as transitional justice and criminal justice, and their shortcomings are analyzed in depth. Subsequently a new approach is developed towards achieving accountability in a child-adequate way, which is called restorative transitional justice. This book is in the first place aimed at researchers with an interest in child soldiers, children and armed conflict, as well as international criminal law, transitional justice, juvenile justice, restorative justice, children’s rights, and international human rights law. Secondly, professionals working on issues of transitional justice, juvenile justice, international criminal law, children’s rights, and the reintegration of child soldiers will also find the subject matter of great relevance to their practice. Dr. Leonie Steinl, LL.M. (Columbia) is a Researcher and Lecturer at the Faculty of Law of the Humboldt-Universität in Berlin.

Should Child Soldiers Be Punished For War Crimes

Author: Victor Roman
Publisher: Victor Roman
ISBN: 384541247X
Size: 78.52 MB
Format: PDF
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This paper takes a theoretical approach to examining the justification for punishing child soldiers for war crimes. The author uses a wide range of academic literature from the field of Politics, Philosophy, Sociology, Media, Law and Psychology to explain this very complex issue surrounding child soldiers. The author is inspired by Omar Khadr's case, a young soldier who has been detained since he was at the age of 15, November 2002, in Guantanamo Bay and tried for alleged war crimes. The paper analyses this apparent breach of international law through an ethical lens with the hope that it can find a real justification for punishing child soldiers who commit atrocities. The author goes through controversial issues such as childhood being a social construct and children being rational moral agents, the diffusion of combatant's responsibility for war crimes and the moral justification of punishment. The aim of this paper is to launch an in-depth debate on a topic which might have been considered straight-forward, but as the author proves, it deserves the full attention of scholars in the field of Political Science and Law.

Armies Of The Young

Author: David M. Rosen
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
ISBN: 9780813535685
Size: 67.87 MB
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Children have served as soldiers throughout history. They fought in the American Revolution, the Civil War, and in both world wars. They served as uniformed soldiers, camouflaged insurgents, and even suicide bombers. Indeed, the first U.S. soldier to be killed by hostile fire in the Afghanistan war was shot in ambush by a fourteen-year-old boy. Does this mean that child soldiers are aggressors? Or are they victims? It is a difficult question with no obvious answer, yet in recent years the acceptable answer among humanitarian organizations and contemporary scholars has been resoundingly the latter. These children are most often seen as especially hideous examples of adult criminal exploitation. In this provocative book, David M. Rosen argues that this response vastly oversimplifies the child soldier problem. Drawing on three dramatic examples-from Sierra Leone, Palestine, and Eastern Europe during the Holocaust-Rosen vividly illustrates this controversial view. In each case, he shows that children are not always passive victims, but often make the rational decision that not fighting is worse than fighting. With a critical eye to international law, Armies of the Young urges readers to reconsider the situation of child combatants in light of circumstance and history before adopting uninformed child protectionist views. In the process, Rosen paints a memorable and unsettling picture of the role of children in international conflicts.

Childhood And Adolescence In Society

Author: CQ Researcher,
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1452236062
Size: 22.57 MB
Format: PDF
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About CQ Researcher Readers In the tradition of nonpartisan and current analysis that is the hallmark of CQ Press, CQ Researcher readers investigate important and controversial policy issues. Childhood and Adolescence in Society aims to promote in-depth discussion, facilitate further research, and help readers formulate their own positions on crucial issues in the field, such as child soldiers, teen pregnancy, and violence and bullying. Offer your students the balanced reporting, complete overviews, and engaging writing that CQ Researcher has consistently provided for more than 80 years. Each article gives substantial background and analysis of a particular issue as well as useful pedagogical features to inspire critical thinking and to help students grasp and review key material. Key Features Pro/con boxes that examine two competing sides of a single question Detailed chronologies of key dates and events Annotated bibliographies and web resources Outlook sections that address possible regulation and initiatives from Capitol Hill and the White House over the next 5 to 10 years Photos, charts, graphs, and maps

Children At War

Author: Peter W. Singer
Publisher: Vintage
ISBN: 1101970057
Size: 75.27 MB
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Children at War is the first comprehensive book to examine the growing and global use of children as soldiers. P.W. Singer, an internationally recognized expert in twenty-first-century warfare, explores how a new strategy of war, utilized by armies and warlords alike, has targeted children, seeking to turn them into soldiers and terrorists. Singer writes about how the first American serviceman killed by hostile fire in Afghanistan—a Green Beret—was shot by a fourteen-year-old Afghan boy; how suspected militants detained by U.S. forces in Iraq included more than one hundred children under the age of seventeen; and how hundreds who were taken hostage in Thailand were held captive by the rebel "God's Army," led by twelve-year-old twins. Interweaving the voices of child soldiers throughout the book, Singer looks at the ways these children are recruited, abducted, trained, and finally sent off to fight in war-torn hot spots, from Colombia and the Sudan to Kashmir and Sierra Leone. He writes about children who have been indoctrinated to fight U.S. forces in Iraq and Afghanistan; of Iraqui boys between the ages of ten and fifteen who had been trained in military arms and tactics to become Saddam Hussein's Ashbal Saddam (Lion Cubs); of young refugees from Pakistani madrassahs who were recruited to help bring the Taliban to power in the Afghan civil war. The author, National Security Fellow at the Brookings Institution and director of the Brookings Project on U.S. Policy Towards the Islamic World, explores how this phenomenon has come about, and how social disruptions and failures of development in modern Third World nations have led to greater global conflict and an instability that has spawned a new pool of recruits. He writes about how technology has made today's weapons smaller and lighter and therefore easier for children to carry and handle; how one billion people in the world live in developing countries where civil war is part of everyday life; and how some children—without food, clothing, or family—have volunteered as soldiers as their only way to survive. Finally, Singer makes clear how the U.S. government and the international community must face this new reality of modern warfare, how those who benefit from the recruitment of children as soldiers must be held accountable, how Western militaries must be prepared to face children in battle, and how rehabilitation programs can undo this horrific phenomenon and turn child soldiers back into children.

Youth Violence

Author: Kathryn Seifert, PhD
Publisher: Springer Publishing Company
ISBN: 0826107419
Size: 53.63 MB
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"This is an excellent reference and guide to intervention for academics, clinicians, and educations concerned with understanding and decreasing violence."--Choice: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries In the U.S., youth violence is the second leading cause of death for young people between the ages of 10 and 24. This volume, authored by a noted psychotherapist with more than 30 years of experience in family violence, examines recent violent episodes perpetrated by young offenders in order to understand their root causes and to disseminate current prevention and treatment methods through a multidisciplinary lens. The book addresses the theoretical underpinnings of youth violence from the perspectives of psychology and neurobiology, describes different types of violence, includes the latest research on "what works" in prevention and treatment, and examines connections between substance abuse, familial and community violence, and school failure in promoting violence in adolescents. Youth Violence is a comprehensive yet highly readable volume for mental health and social service professionals who work with youth and families, and violence researchers. Key Features: Provides real life case studies from Virginia Tech, Columbine, and other recent violent incidents perpetrated by young people Written by an author with over 30 years of experience in youth violence and creator of the premier risk assessment test in use today Offers the latest findings on "what works" in prevention and treatment