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The Universe In A Helium Droplet

Author: G. E. Volovik
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0198507828
Size: 51.55 MB
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There are fundamental relations between three vast areas of physics: particle physics, cosmology and condensed matter physics. The fundamental links between the first two areas, in other words, between micro- and macro-worlds, have been well established. There is a unified system of laws governing the scales from subatomic particles to the Cosmos and this principle is widely exploited in the description of the physics of the early Universe. The main goal of this book is to establish and define the connection of these two fields with condensed matter physics. According to the modern view, elementary particles (electrons, neutrinos, quarks, etc.) are excitations of a more fundamental medium called the quantum vacuum. This is the new 'aether' of the 21st Century. Electromagnetism, gravity, and the fields transferring weak and strong interactions all represent different types of the collective motion of the quantum vacuum. Among the existing condensed matter systems, a quantum liquid called superfluid 3He-A most closely represents the quantum vacuum. Its quasiparticles are very similar to the elementary particles, while the collective modes of the liquid are very similar to electromagnetic and gravitational fields, and the quanta of these collective modes are analogues of photons and gravitons. The fundamental laws of physics, such as the laws of relativity (Lorentz invariance) and gauge invariance, arise when the temperature of the quantum liquid decreases. This book is written for graduate students and researchers in all areas of physics.

Physics Of Transition Metal Oxides

Author: Sadamichi Maekawa
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540212935
Size: 17.84 MB
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The fact that magnetite (Fe304) was already known in the Greek era as a peculiar mineral is indicative of the long history of transition metal oxides as useful materials. The discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in 1986 has renewed interest in transition metal oxides. High-temperature su perconductors are all cuprates. Why is it? To answer to this question, we must understand the electronic states in the cuprates. Transition metal oxides are also familiar as magnets. They might be found stuck on the door of your kitchen refrigerator. Magnetic materials are valuable not only as magnets but as electronics materials. Manganites have received special attention recently because of their extremely large magnetoresistance, an effect so large that it is called colossal magnetoresistance (CMR). What is the difference between high-temperature superconducting cuprates and CMR manganites? Elements with incomplete d shells in the periodic table are called tran sition elements. Among them, the following eight elements with the atomic numbers from 22 to 29, i. e. , Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu are the most im portant. These elements make compounds with oxygen and present a variety of properties. High-temperature superconductivity and CMR are examples. Most of the textbooks on magnetism discuss the magnetic properties of transition metal oxides. However, when one studies magnetism using tradi tional textbooks, one finds that the transport properties are not introduced in the initial stages.

Magnetism In The Solid State

Author: Peter Mohn
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540431831
Size: 51.52 MB
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This book presents a phenomenological approach to the field of solid state magnetism. It surveys the various theories and discusses their applicability in different types of materials. The text will be valuable as a text for graduate courses in magnetism and magnetic materials.

Modern Trends In Superconductivity And Superfluidity

Author: M. Yu. Kagan
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 940076961X
Size: 38.77 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book concisely presents the latest trends in the physics of superconductivity and superfluidity and magnetism in novel systems, as well as the problem of BCS-BEC crossover in ultracold quantum gases and high-Tc superconductors. It further illuminates the intensive exchange of ideas between these closely related fields of condensed matter physics over the last 30 years of their dynamic development. The content is based on the author’s original findings obtained at the Kapitza Institute, as well as advanced lecture courses he held at the Moscow Engineering Physical Institute, Amsterdam University, Loughborough University and LPTMS Orsay between 1994 and 2011. In addition to the findings of his group, the author discusses the most recent concepts in these fields, obtained both in Russia and in the West. The book consists of 16 chapters which are divided into four parts. The first part describes recent developments in superfluid hydrodynamics of quantum fluids and solids, including the fashionable subject of possible supersolidity in quantum crystals of 4He, while the second describes BCS-BEC crossover in quantum Fermi-Bose gases and mixtures, as well as in the underdoped states of cuprates. The third part is devoted to non-phonon mechanisms of superconductivity in unconventional (anomalous) superconductors, including some important aspects of the theory of high-Tc superconductivity. |The last part considers the anomalous normal state of novel superconductive materials and materials with colossal magnetoresistance (CMR). The book offers a valuable guide for senior-level undergraduate students and graduate students, postdoctoral and other researchers specializing in solid-state and low-temperature physics.

Lectures On The Physics Of Highly Correlated Electron Systems Ix

Author: Adolfo Avella
Publisher: American Inst. of Physics
ISBN: 9780735402799
Size: 80.79 MB
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This book contains lectures on strongly correlated electron systems presented by eminent physicists. These lectures are up-to-date summaries of relevant subjects in the field of condensed matter physics. Contributions include: BCS theory of nodal superconductors; strongly correlated particle systems and composite operator methods; diagonalization- and numerical renormalization-group-based methods for interacting quantum systems; as well as phenomenological aspects of unconventional superconductivity.


Author: Jean-Pierre Serre
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540435631
Size: 55.18 MB
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The volumes in this set collect almost all of the research and expository papers of J-P. Serre published in mathematical journals through 1998, as well as some of his seminar reports, and a few items not previously published.